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Etchells E, Ho M, Shojania zetia cost with medicare KG. Value of small sample sizes in rapid-cycle quality improvement projects. BMJ Qual Safe 2016;25:202–6.The zetia cost with medicare article has been corrected since it was published online. The authors want to alert readers to the following error identified in the published version.

The error is in the last paragraph of the section “Small samples can make ‘rapid improvement’ Rapid”, wherein the minimum sample size zetia cost with medicare has been considered as six instead of eight.For this first (convenience) sample of 10 volunteer users, 5/10 (50%) completed the form without any input or instructions. The other five became frustrated and gave up. Table 1 tells you that, with an observed success rate of 50% and a desired target of 90%, any audit with a sample of six or more allows you to confidently reject zetia cost with medicare the null hypothesis that your form is working at a 90% success rate.For decades, those working in hospitals normalised the incessant alarms from medical devices as a necessary, almost comforting, reality of a high tech industry. While nurses drowned in excessive, frequently uninformative alarms, other members of the healthcare team often paid little attention.

Fortunately, times are changing and managing alarm fatigue is now a key patient safety priority in acute care environments.1Adverse patient events from alarm fatigue, particularly related to excessive physiological monitor alarms, have received zetia cost with medicare widespread attention over the last decade, including from the news media.2–5 In the USA, hospitals redoubled alarm safety efforts following the 2013 Joint Commission Sentinel Event Alert and subsequent National Patient Safety Goals on alarm safety.1 2 6 We are now beginning to understand how to reduce excessive non-actionable alarms (including invalid alarms as well as those that are valid but not actionable or informative),7 8 better manage alarm notifications and ultimately improve patient safety. Alarm data are readily available and measuring alarm response time during patient care is possible.7 9 Yet we have few high-quality reports describing clear improvement to clinical alarm burden, and most published interventions are of limited scope, duration or both.10 11 To demonstrate value in alarm quality improvement (QI) efforts moving forward, we need more rigorous evidence for interventions and more meaningful outcome measures.In this issue of BMJ Quality and Safety, Pater et al12 report the results of a comprehensive multidisciplinary alarm management QI project executed over 3½ years in a 17-bed paediatric acute care cardiology unit. The primary project goal was to reduce zetia cost with medicare alarm notifications from continuous bedside monitoring. Although limited to a single unit, the project is an important contribution to the scant literature on alarm management in paediatric settings for three reasons.

First, the initiative lasted longer than most that have been reported, which allowed for tailoring of alarm interventions to the needs of the unit and patient population and measuring the impacts and sustainability over time. Second, the scope of the intervention bundle encompassed a wide zetia cost with medicare variety of changes including adoption of a smartphone notification system. Addition of time delays between when alarm thresholds are violated and when an alarm notification is issued. Implementation of an alarm notification escalation zetia cost with medicare algorithm after a certain amount of time in alarm threshold violation.

Deactivation of numerous technical alarms (such as respiratory lead detachment). Monitoring of zetia cost with medicare electrode lead replacement every 24 hours. And discussion of alarm parameters on daily rounds. Third, the authors introduced a novel strategy for reducing the stress that alarms may cause patients and families by deactivating inroom alarm audio, although no outcomes were reported attributable directly to this zetia cost with medicare component of the intervention.This project constitutes an important contribution to the published literature.

However, Pater et al faced two challenges that are ubiquitous in the field of clinical alarm management. (1) Identification of meaningful zetia cost with medicare outcome measures and (2) Lack of high-quality evidence for most interventions. With regards to the first challenge, the primary outcome measure used in the study comprised ‘initial alarm notifications’, defined as the first notification of a monitor alarm delivered to the nurse’s mobile device. Although initial alarm notifications declined by 68% following the intervention, these notifications accounted for only about half of all alarm notifications.

The other half included second and third notifications for alarms exceeding specified delay thresholds, which were sent both to the mobile device of the primary nurse zetia cost with medicare and to ‘buddy’ nurses, potentially increasing alarm burden. On the other hand, eliminating inroom audible alarms may have reduced the perceived alarm burden for nurses compared with having both bedside and mobile device notifications. Determining the true benefit of a reduction in a subset of alarms presents complex challenges.Alarm frequency is zetia cost with medicare the most commonly used outcome measure in alarm research and QI projects, but reduction in alarms does not necessarily indicate improved patient safety or a highly functional alarm management system. Alarm reduction could easily be achieved in an undesirable way by simply turning off alarms.

Unfortunately, most studies have not zetia cost with medicare been powered to statistically evaluate improvements in patient safety. (Pater et al did monitor patient safety balancing measures, which remained stable after intervention implementation). To assess change in nurses’ perceptions of alarm frequency, Pater et al conducted a prepost survey, which despite the small sample size (n=38 preintervention and n=25 postintervention) managed to zetia cost with medicare show improvement, with the percentage of nurses agreeing they could respond to alarms appropriately and quickly increasing from 32% to 76% (p<0.001). That said, this survey was not a validated measure of alarm fatigue.

In fact, we currently have no widely accepted, validated tool for assessing alarm fatigue.11As zetia cost with medicare we look towards future evaluations of alarm management strategies, the focus needs to shift away from simply reducing the frequency of alarms to more meaningful outcome metrics. In addition to alarm rates, outcomes such as response time to actual patient alarms7 9 or to simulated alarms injected into real patient care environments13 may be better indicators of whether the entire alarm response system is functioning correctly. Larger, multisite studies are needed to assess patient outcomes.In addition to meaningful outcome measures, the second challenge for alarm QI projects is the lack of good evidence for alarm management interventions. Most alarm reduction interventions have not been systematically evaluated at all or only in small studies without a control group.10 11 As a result, alarm management projects tend to involve complex and costly bundles of interventions of zetia cost with medicare uncertain benefit.

The cost of these interventions is due in part to the growing industry of technology solutions for alarm management. Some institutions zetia cost with medicare have also made massive investments in personnel, such as monitor ‘watchers’ to help nurses identify actionable alarms, for which there is also little evidence.14Future alarm management QI initiatives will benefit from a higher quality evidence base for the growing list of potential alarm management interventions. Pragmatic trials that leverage meaningful outcome measures to assess alarm interventions are warranted. In addition, zetia cost with medicare we need to evaluate interventions that address the full spectrum of the alarm management system.

Most alarm management interventions to date have focused primarily on filtering out non-actionable alarms. Far less emphasis has been placed on ensuring that zetia cost with medicare the nurse receiving the notification is available to respond to the alarm, a prime opportunity for future work.Even if alarms are actionable, we know that nurses may not always respond quickly for a variety of reasons.7 15–17 Factors like insufficient staffing, high severity of illness on the unit and unbalanced nursing skill mix all likely contribute to inadequate alarm response. In critical care, nurses have reported that the nature of their work requires that they function as a team to respond to one another’s alarms.15 Although not ideal, nurses have developed heuristics based on factors like family presence at the bedside to help them prioritise alarm response in hectic work environments.7 16 Emphasising outcomes like faster alarm response time without addressing systems factors risks trading one patient safety problem for another. We do not want to engender more frequent interruptions of high-risk activities, like medication administration,18 19 because nurses feel compelled zetia cost with medicare to respond more quickly to alarms.The robust QI initiative carried out by Pater et al reflects the type of thoughtful approach needed to implement and tailor alarm management interventions for a particular unit, demonstrating a generalisable process for others to emulate.

Ultimately, every alarm offers a potential benefit (opportunity to rescue a patient) and comes with a potential cost (eg, increased alarm fatigue, interruptions of other activities). This trade-off needs to be optimised in the context of the individual unit, accounting for the unit-specific and systems factors that influence the cost of each additional alarm, including non-actionable alarm rates, unit layout, severity of illness and nurse staffing.17 20 With more robust outcome measures and more evidence to support interventions, we can increase the value of alarm QI initiatives and accelerate progress towards optimising alarm management systems.AcknowledgmentsWe thank Charles McCulloch, PhD (University of California, San Francisco) for comments on an early draft..

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[embedded content][The stream is slated to start zetia side effects itching at 11:30 a.m. ET. Please refresh the page if you do not see a player above at that time.]New zetia side effects itching York Gov. Andrew Cuomo is holding a news conference Tuesday as the state continues to carefully reopen more businesses in New York City and prepares to return students and teachers to the classrooms while safeguarding against the coronavirus. New York has reported a Covid-19 infection rate below 1% for more zetia side effects itching than four weeks as it prepares for its schools, including the largest school district in the country in New York City, to return students to the classroom this fall.

Democratic Gov. Cuomo announced last week that casinos across the state and malls in New York City will be allowed to reopen with modified capacity beginning Wednesday. The governor, however, zetia side effects itching has yet to grant New York City restaurants the ability to reopen their dining rooms for indoor service, unlike other parts of the state. Restaurants in the Big Apple have been operating over the summer through takeout and outdoor dining, but they can't serve patrons inside. Cuomo said on Thursday that indoor dining in the city is still on hold because local zetia side effects itching officials have struggled to enforce the state's previous orders.

"I want to open the restaurants in New York City," Cuomo said on a call last week. "I don't know how we're going to do the compliance and, by the way, I am open to any suggestions."Read CNBC's live updates to see the latest news on the Covid-19 outbreak..

[embedded content][The stream is slated to zetia cost with medicare start at 11:30 a.m. ET. Please refresh the page if you do zetia cost with medicare not see a player above at that time.]New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo is holding a news conference Tuesday as the state continues to carefully reopen more businesses in New York City and prepares to return students and teachers to the classrooms while safeguarding against the coronavirus.

New York has reported a Covid-19 infection rate below 1% for more than four weeks as it prepares for its schools, including the largest zetia cost with medicare school district in the country in New York City, to return students to the classroom this fall. Democratic Gov. Cuomo announced last week that casinos across the state and malls in New York City will be allowed to reopen with modified capacity beginning Wednesday. The governor, however, has yet to grant New York City restaurants the ability to reopen their zetia cost with medicare dining rooms for indoor service, unlike other parts of the state.

Restaurants in the Big Apple have been operating over the summer through takeout and outdoor dining, but they can't serve patrons inside. Cuomo said on zetia cost with medicare Thursday that indoor dining in the city is still on hold because local officials have struggled to enforce the state's previous orders. "I want to open the restaurants in New York City," Cuomo said on a call last week. "I don't know how we're going to do the compliance and, by the way, I am open to any suggestions."Read CNBC's live updates to see the latest news on the Covid-19 outbreak..

What should I watch for while using Zetia?

Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular checks on your progress. You will need to have your cholesterol levels checked. If you are also taking some other cholesterol medicines, you will also need to have tests to make sure your liver is working properly.

Tell your doctor or health care professional if you get any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, especially if you also have a fever and tiredness.

You need to follow a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet while you are taking Zetia. This will decrease your risk of getting heart and blood vessel disease. Exercising and avoiding alcohol and smoking can also help. Ask your doctor or dietician for advice.

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04 September, 2020 side effects of zetia medication. Following a comprehensive search, the Board of the Australian Digital Health Agency announced today that Ms Amanda Cattermole PSM will be appointed as Chief Executive Officer of the Agency. Ms Cattermole has a long and distinguished history of senior leadership roles in service delivery in side effects of zetia medication the public sector, leading high performing organisations, while growing customer satisfaction and staff engagement. She also has deep expertise in digital transformation across government and within the health sector.Most recently, Ms Cattermole was Chief Operating Officer of Services Australia with responsibility for budget and financial services, people, governance, audit and risk. Ms Cattermole was previously the interim CEO of Services Australia side effects of zetia medication and has held Deputy Secretary roles in health service delivery in the Commonwealth and in the Victorian State Government.

Ms Cattermole holds a Master of Laws from Charles Darwin University, a Master of Business Administration from the University of Western Australia and Bachelor Degrees in Law and Commerce from the University of Melbourne.Welcoming Ms Cattermole’s appointment on behalf of the Agency, Board Chair Dr Elizabeth Deveny said “Amanda Cattermole is held in the highest regard across the public service and health sector and will bring a depth of knowledge and capability to the role of CEO at a time when digital health has never been more important. The Board has appointed a leader who is deeply skilled, committed to improving the health of all Australians and who understands the importance of digital innovation in better connecting Australia’s healthcare system.”The Hon Greg Hunt, Minister for Health, said “I am pleased to side effects of zetia medication welcome Ms Cattermole and look forward to working closely together to drive technology in healthcare as the need has never been greater.”The Board of the Agency also acknowledged the invaluable leadership of Ms Bettina McMahon, who has acted as CEO since February this year. €œThe Board of the Agency would like to thank Ms McMahon for her leadership, dedication and commitment, and wishes her the best for the future.”Ms Cattermole will commence on Tuesday 29 September.Media contactAustralian Digital Health Agency Media TeamMobile. 0428 772 421Email. [email protected] side effects of zetia medication About the Australian Digital Health AgencyThe Agency is tasked with improving health outcomes for all Australians through the delivery of digital healthcare systems, and implementing Australia’s National Digital Health Strategy – Safe, Seamless, and Secure.

Evolving health and care to meet the needs of modern Australia in collaboration with partners across the community. The Agency is the System Operator of My Health Record, and provides leadership, coordination, and delivery of a collaborative and innovative approach to utilising technology to side effects of zetia medication support and enhance a clinically safe and connected national health system. These improvements will give individuals more control of their health and their health information, and support healthcare providers to deliver informed healthcare through access to current clinical and treatment information. Further information side effects of zetia medication. Www.digitalhealth.gov.auMedia release - Australian Digital Health Agency CEO announced.docx 66KB)Media release - Australian Digital Health Agency CEO announced.pdf (191KB)By operation of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Establishing the Australian Digital Health Agency) Rule 2016, on 1 July 2016, all the assets and liabilities of NEHTA will vest in the Australian Digital Health Agency.

In this website, on and from 1 July 2016, all references to "National E-Health Transition Authority" or "NEHTA" will be deemed to side effects of zetia medication be references to the Australian Digital Health Agency. PCEHR means the My Health Record, formerly the "Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record", within the meaning of the My Health Records Act 2012 (Cth), formerly called the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Records Act 2012 (Cth). Website Accessibility Copyright ©2015-2020 Australian Digital Health Agency.

04 September, 2020 zetia cost with medicare. Following a comprehensive search, the Board of the Australian Digital Health Agency announced today that Ms Amanda Cattermole PSM will be appointed as Chief Executive Officer of the Agency. Ms Cattermole has a long and distinguished history of senior leadership roles in service delivery in the public sector, leading zetia cost with medicare high performing organisations, while growing customer satisfaction and staff engagement. She also has deep expertise in digital transformation across government and within the health sector.Most recently, Ms Cattermole was Chief Operating Officer of Services Australia with responsibility for budget and financial services, people, governance, audit and risk.

Ms Cattermole was previously the interim CEO of Services Australia and has held zetia cost with medicare Deputy Secretary roles in health service delivery in the Commonwealth and in the Victorian State Government. Ms Cattermole holds a Master of Laws from Charles Darwin University, a Master of Business Administration from the University of Western Australia and Bachelor Degrees in Law and Commerce from the University of Melbourne.Welcoming Ms Cattermole’s appointment on behalf of the Agency, Board Chair Dr Elizabeth Deveny said “Amanda Cattermole is held in the highest regard across the public service and health sector and will bring a depth of knowledge and capability to the role of CEO at a time when digital health has never been more important. The Board zetia cost with medicare has appointed a leader who is deeply skilled, committed to improving the health of all Australians and who understands the importance of digital innovation in better connecting Australia’s healthcare system.”The Hon Greg Hunt, Minister for Health, said “I am pleased to welcome Ms Cattermole and look forward to working closely together to drive technology in healthcare as the need has never been greater.”The Board of the Agency also acknowledged the invaluable leadership of Ms Bettina McMahon, who has acted as CEO since February this year. €œThe Board of the Agency would like to thank Ms McMahon for her leadership, dedication and commitment, and wishes her the best for the future.”Ms Cattermole will commence on Tuesday 29 September.Media contactAustralian Digital Health Agency Media TeamMobile.

0428 772 421Email. [email protected] About the Australian zetia cost with medicare Digital Health AgencyThe Agency is tasked with improving health outcomes for all Australians through the delivery of digital healthcare systems, and implementing Australia’s National Digital Health Strategy – Safe, Seamless, and Secure. Evolving health and care to meet the needs of modern Australia in collaboration with partners across the community. The Agency is the System Operator of My Health Record, and provides leadership, coordination, and delivery of a collaborative and innovative approach to utilising technology to zetia cost with medicare support and enhance a clinically safe and connected national health system.

These improvements will give individuals more control of their health and their health information, and support healthcare providers to deliver informed healthcare through access to current clinical and treatment information. Further information zetia cost with medicare. Www.digitalhealth.gov.auMedia release - Australian Digital Health Agency CEO announced.docx 66KB)Media release - Australian Digital Health Agency CEO announced.pdf (191KB)By operation of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Establishing the Australian Digital Health Agency) Rule 2016, on 1 July 2016, all the assets and liabilities of NEHTA will vest in the Australian Digital Health Agency. In this website, zetia cost with medicare on and from 1 July 2016, all references to "National E-Health Transition Authority" or "NEHTA" will be deemed to be references to the Australian Digital Health Agency.

PCEHR means the My Health Record, formerly the "Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record", within the meaning of the My Health Records Act 2012 (Cth), formerly called the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Records Act 2012 (Cth). Website Accessibility Copyright ©2015-2020 Australian Digital Health Agency.

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About This TrackerThis tracker provides the number of confirmed cases and deaths from novel coronavirus by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts zetia 10mg tablets side effects by country, and a global map showing which countries have confirmed cases and deaths. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins zetia 10mg tablets side effects University (JHU) Coronavirus Resource Center’s COVID-19 Map and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Coronavirus Disease (COVID-2019) situation reports.This tracker will be updated regularly, as new data are released.Related Content. About COVID-19 CoronavirusIn late 2019, a new coronavirus emerged in central China to cause disease in humans.

Cases of this disease, known as COVID-19, have zetia 10mg tablets side effects since been reported across around the globe. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the virus represents a public health emergency of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health emergency for the United States.With schools nationwide preparing for fall and the federal government encouraging in-person classes, key concerns for school officials, teachers and parents include the risks that coronavirus poses to children and their role in zetia 10mg tablets side effects transmission of the disease.A new KFF brief examines the latest available data and evidence about the issues around COVID-19 and children and what they suggest about the risks posed for reopening classrooms.

The review concludes that while children are much less likely than adults to zetia 10mg tablets side effects become severely ill, they can transmit the virus. Key findings include:Disease severity is significantly less in children, though rarely some do get very sick. Children under age 18 account for 22% of the population but account for just 7% of the more than 4 million COVID-19 cases and less zetia 10mg tablets side effects than 1% of deaths.The evidence is mixed about whether children are less likely than adults to become infected when exposed.

While one prominent study estimates children and teenagers are half as likely as adults over age 20 to catch the virus, other studies find children and adults are about equally likely to have antibodies that develop after a COVID-19 infection.While children do transmit to others, more evidence is needed on the frequency and extent of that transmission. A number of studies find children zetia 10mg tablets side effects are less likely than adults to be the source of infections in households and other settings, though this could occur because of differences in testing, the severity of the disease, and the impact of earlier school closures.Most countries that have reopened schools have not experienced outbreaks, but almost all had significantly lower rates of community transmission. Some countries, including Canada, Chile, France, and Israel did experience school-based outbreaks, sometimes significant ones, that required schools to close a second time.The analysis concludes that there is a risk of spread associated with reopening schools, particularly in states and communities where there is already widespread community transmission, that should be weighed carefully against the benefits of in-person education..

About This TrackerThis tracker provides the number of confirmed cases and deaths from novel coronavirus by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts by country, and a global map zetia cost with medicare showing which countries have confirmed cases and deaths. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Coronavirus Resource Center’s COVID-19 Map and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Coronavirus Disease (COVID-2019) situation reports.This zetia cost with medicare tracker will be updated regularly, as new data are released.Related Content. About COVID-19 CoronavirusIn late 2019, a new coronavirus emerged in central China to cause disease in humans. Cases of this disease, known zetia cost with medicare as COVID-19, have since been reported across around the globe.

On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the virus represents a public health emergency of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health emergency for the United States.With schools nationwide preparing for fall and the federal government encouraging in-person classes, key concerns for school officials, teachers and parents include the risks that coronavirus poses to children and their role in transmission of the disease.A new KFF brief examines the latest available data and evidence about the issues around COVID-19 and children and what they suggest about the risks posed zetia cost with medicare for reopening classrooms. The review concludes that while children are much less likely than adults to become severely zetia cost with medicare ill, they can transmit the virus. Key findings include:Disease severity is significantly less in children, though rarely some do get very sick.

Children under age 18 account for 22% of the zetia cost with medicare population but account for just 7% of the more than 4 million COVID-19 cases and less than 1% of deaths.The evidence is mixed about whether children are less likely than adults to become infected when exposed. While one prominent study estimates children and teenagers are half as likely as adults over age 20 to catch the virus, other studies find children and adults are about equally likely to have antibodies that develop after a COVID-19 infection.While children do transmit to others, more evidence is needed on the frequency and extent of that transmission. A number of studies find children are less likely than adults to be the source of infections in households and other settings, though this could occur because of differences in testing, the severity of the zetia cost with medicare disease, and the impact of earlier school closures.Most countries that have reopened schools have not experienced outbreaks, but almost all had significantly lower rates of community transmission. Some countries, including Canada, Chile, France, and Israel did experience school-based outbreaks, sometimes significant ones, that required schools to close a second time.The analysis concludes that there is a risk of spread associated with reopening schools, particularly in states and communities where there is already widespread community transmission, that should be weighed carefully against the benefits of in-person education..

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Credit. IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly affects black women and is the most common form of permanent alopecia in this population.

The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb. Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries. During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over.

The prevalence of those with fibroids was compared in patients with and without CCCA. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition. In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids.

The findings translate to a fivefold increased risk of uterine fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls. Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause of the link between the two conditions remains unclear,” she says.

However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it. Women with this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition.

The other authors on this paper were Ginette A. Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit.

The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors. - Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows.

The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells.

As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an infection. These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced melanoma and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma.

The mutational burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow. Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types was unclear.

To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined these findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types. Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation.

The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained by the mutational burden of that cancer. €œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive.

It’s one of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins. €œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors.

However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a virus, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden. In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t yet been tried.

Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs. €œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says.

Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman &. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future.Credit.

IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly affects black women and is the most common form of permanent alopecia in this population. The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb.

Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries. During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over. The prevalence of those with fibroids was compared in patients with and without CCCA.

Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition. In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids. The findings translate to a fivefold increased risk of uterine fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls.

Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause of the link between the two conditions remains unclear,” she says. However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it.

Women with this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition. The other authors on this paper were Ginette A.

Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit. The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types.

- Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors. - Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows. The finding, published in the Dec.

21 New England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells. As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an infection.

These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced melanoma and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. The mutational burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow.

Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types was unclear. To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer.

They combined these findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types. Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation. The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors.

More than half of the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained by the mutational burden of that cancer. €œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive. It’s one of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins.

€œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors. However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a virus, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden.

In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t yet been tried. Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies.

He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs. €œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says. Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman &.

Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future..

Credit. IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly affects black women and is the most common form of permanent alopecia in this population. The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb.

Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries. During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over. The prevalence of those with fibroids was compared in patients with and without CCCA. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition.

In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids. The findings translate to a fivefold increased risk of uterine fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls. Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause of the link between the two conditions remains unclear,” she says.

However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it. Women with this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition. The other authors on this paper were Ginette A.

Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit. The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors.

- Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows. The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells.

As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an infection. These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced melanoma and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. The mutational burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow.

Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types was unclear. To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined these findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types.

Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation. The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained by the mutational burden of that cancer. €œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive.

It’s one of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins. €œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors. However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a virus, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden.

In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t yet been tried. Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs.

€œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says. Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman &. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future.Credit.

IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly affects black women and is the most common form of permanent alopecia in this population. The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb. Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries.

During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over. The prevalence of those with fibroids was compared in patients with and without CCCA. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition. In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids.

The findings translate to a fivefold increased risk of uterine fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls. Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause of the link between the two conditions remains unclear,” she says. However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it.

Women with this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition. The other authors on this paper were Ginette A. Okoye, M.D.

Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit. The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors. - Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows.

The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells. As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an infection.

These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced melanoma and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. The mutational burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow. Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations.

However, exactly how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types was unclear. To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined these findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types. Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation.

The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained by the mutational burden of that cancer. €œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive. It’s one of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins.

€œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors. However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a virus, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden. In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear.

Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t yet been tried. Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs. €œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says.

Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman &. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future..

What does zetia treat

REDWOOD CITY, what does zetia treat Calif., Sept. 01, 2020 (GLOBE what does zetia treat NEWSWIRE) -- Guardant Health, Inc. (Nasdaq. GH) today announced the company will be participating in the upcoming Morgan Stanley Virtual Healthcare Conference.Guardant what does zetia treat Health’s management is scheduled for a fireside chat on Tuesday, September 15 at 8:45 a.m.

Pacific Time / 11:45 a.m. Eastern Time what does zetia treat. Interested parties may access a live and archived webcast of the presentation on the “Investors” section of the company website at. Www.guardanthealth.com.About Guardant HealthGuardant Health is a leading precision oncology company what does zetia treat focused on helping conquer cancer globally through use of its proprietary blood tests, vast data sets, and advanced analytics.

The Guardant Health Oncology Platform leverages capabilities to drive commercial adoption, improve patient clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs across all stages of the cancer care continuum. Guardant Health has launched liquid biopsy-based Guardant360® and GuardantOMNI® tests for advanced stage what does zetia treat cancer patients. These tests fuel development of its LUNAR program, which aims to address the needs of early stage cancer patients with neoadjuvant and what does zetia treat adjuvant treatment selection, cancer survivors with surveillance, asymptomatic individuals eligible for cancer screening and individuals at a higher risk for developing cancer with early detection.Investor Contact:Carrie Mendivilinvestors@guardanthealth.comMedia Contact:Anna Czenepress@guardanthealth.comCourtney Carrollcourtney.carroll@uncappedcommunications.com Source. Guardant Health, Inc.COVID-19 diagnostic expands testing supply, protects the continuity of essential cancer work at Guardant Health, and helps with reopening at Delaware State UniversityREDWOOD CITY, Calif., Aug.

24, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Guardant what does zetia treat Health, Inc. (Nasdaq. GH) announces that the U.S what does zetia treat. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted the Guardant-19 test emergency use authorization (EUA) for use in the detection of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

The test is being offered to Guardant Health employees and select partner organizations through the company’s CLIA-certified clinical laboratory.The Guardant-19 test is a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction next generation sequencing (rt-PCR-seq) test that detects coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid from upper respiratory nasal specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, nasal what does zetia treat swabs, interior nasal swabs, mid-turbinate nasal swabs, nasopharyngeal wash/aspirates, nasal aspirates, and nasal washes. The test has a validated limit of detection (LoD) of 125 copies per mL and results are typically returned the next day. The heavily multiplexed testing workflow used has the ability to scale to over 10,000 tests per day.“While serving cancer patients remains our top priority, we are proud to be able to leverage our expertise in liquid biopsy testing to contribute to battling the what does zetia treat COVID-19 pandemic by offering a highly accurate test that is truly additive to the testing options available today,” said AmirAli Talasaz, Guardant Health president. €œSince the beginning of the pandemic we believed what does zetia treat it was our social responsibility to not only protect the health and safety of our employees, but to also help our greater community with return to work and school initiatives.

It gives me great pride knowing that Guardant Health is able to deliver.”The Guardant-19 test is being used to help Delaware State University, a Historically Black College &. University, in its efforts to reopen what does zetia treat safely. €œGuardant is providing us with an innovative testing technology to help protect the safety of our entire campus community,” said Tony Allen, president of Delaware State University, which is being advised by nonprofit Testing for America on its reopening plans.“Our mission is to permanently and safely reopen schools, business and the US economy by providing affordable, accessible and frequent testing and screening. We believe that a testing option like the what does zetia treat one provided by Guardant Health can help achieve the highly accurate and rapid results at a scale that we need,” said Dr.

Joan Coker, surgeon and Advisory Council member of Testing for America.The Healing Grove Health Center in San Jose, California is another partner organization. €œWe are thankful for what does zetia treat a high-throughput, fast, accurate COVID-19 test from Guardant Health,” said Brett Bymaster, the center’s executive director. €œOur patients are low-income and high risk, and we are seeing a high positivity rate. When we catch these positive cases early, we are possibly saving hundreds of people from getting infected with what does zetia treat COVID-19 by ensuring that they quarantine.

By working closely with Guardant Health, we have gotten results quickly and have been what does zetia treat able to keep our COVID-positive patients recovering at home, limiting the severity of the outbreak in this important community.”To learn more about accessing the Guardant-19 test, email. Guardant19support@guardanthealth.com.About Guardant HealthGuardant Health is a leading precision oncology company focused on helping conquer cancer globally through use of its proprietary blood tests, vast data sets, and advanced analytics. The Guardant Health Oncology Platform leverages capabilities to drive commercial adoption, improve patient clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs what does zetia treat across all stages of the cancer care continuum. Guardant Health has launched liquid biopsy-based Guardant360® and GuardantOMNI® tests for advanced stage cancer patients.

These tests fuel development of its LUNAR program, which aims to address the needs of early stage cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment selection, cancer survivors with surveillance, asymptomatic individuals what does zetia treat eligible for cancer screening and individuals at a higher risk for developing cancer with early detection.Investor Contact:Carrie Mendivilinvestors@guardanthealth.comMedia Contact:Anna Czenepress@guardanthealth.comCourtney Carrollcourtney.carroll@uncappedcommunications.com Source. Guardant Health, Inc.REDWOOD CITY, Calif., Sept. 01, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Guardant Health, what does zetia treat Inc. (Nasdaq.

GH) today announced the what does zetia treat company will be participating in the upcoming Morgan Stanley Virtual Healthcare Conference.Guardant Health’s management is scheduled for a fireside chat on Tuesday, September 15 at 8:45 a.m. Pacific Time / 11:45 a.m. Eastern Time what does zetia treat. Interested parties may access a live and archived webcast of the presentation on the “Investors” section of the what does zetia treat company website at.

Www.guardanthealth.com.About Guardant HealthGuardant Health is a leading precision oncology company focused on helping conquer cancer globally through use of its proprietary blood tests, vast data sets, and advanced analytics. The Guardant Health Oncology Platform leverages capabilities to drive commercial adoption, improve patient what does zetia treat clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs across all stages of the cancer care continuum. Guardant Health has launched liquid biopsy-based Guardant360® and GuardantOMNI® tests for advanced stage cancer patients. These tests fuel development of its LUNAR program, which aims to address the needs of early stage cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment selection, cancer survivors with surveillance, asymptomatic individuals eligible for cancer screening and individuals at a higher risk what does zetia treat for developing cancer with early detection.Investor Contact:Carrie Mendivilinvestors@guardanthealth.comMedia Contact:Anna Czenepress@guardanthealth.comCourtney Carrollcourtney.carroll@uncappedcommunications.com Source.

Guardant Health, Inc.COVID-19 diagnostic expands testing supply, protects the continuity of essential cancer work at Guardant Health, and helps with reopening at Delaware State UniversityREDWOOD CITY, Calif., Aug. 24, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Guardant Health, what does zetia treat Inc. (Nasdaq. GH) announces that the U.S what does zetia treat.

Food and Drug Administration what does zetia treat (FDA) has granted the Guardant-19 test emergency use authorization (EUA) for use in the detection of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. The test is being offered to Guardant Health employees and select partner organizations through the company’s CLIA-certified clinical laboratory.The Guardant-19 test is a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction next generation sequencing (rt-PCR-seq) test that detects coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid from upper respiratory nasal specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, nasal swabs, interior nasal swabs, mid-turbinate nasal swabs, nasopharyngeal wash/aspirates, nasal aspirates, and nasal washes. The test has a validated what does zetia treat limit of detection (LoD) of 125 copies per mL and results are typically returned the next day. The heavily multiplexed testing workflow used has the ability to scale to over 10,000 tests per day.“While serving cancer patients remains our top priority, we are proud to be able to leverage our expertise in liquid biopsy testing to contribute to battling the COVID-19 pandemic by offering a highly accurate test that is truly additive to the testing options available today,” said AmirAli Talasaz, Guardant Health president.

€œSince the beginning what does zetia treat of the pandemic we believed it was our social responsibility to not only protect the health and safety of our employees, but to also help our greater community with return to work and school initiatives. It gives me great pride knowing that Guardant Health is able to deliver.”The Guardant-19 test is being used to help Delaware State University, a Historically Black College &. University, in its efforts to reopen safely what does zetia treat. €œGuardant is providing us with an innovative testing technology to help protect the safety of our entire campus community,” said Tony Allen, president of Delaware State University, which is being advised by nonprofit Testing for America on its reopening plans.“Our mission is to permanently and safely reopen schools, business and the US economy by providing affordable, accessible and frequent testing and screening.

We believe that a what does zetia treat testing option like the one provided by Guardant Health can help achieve the highly accurate and rapid results at a scale that we need,” said Dr. Joan Coker, what does zetia treat surgeon and Advisory Council member of Testing for America.The Healing Grove Health Center in San Jose, California is another partner organization. €œWe are thankful for a high-throughput, fast, accurate COVID-19 test from Guardant Health,” said Brett Bymaster, the center’s executive director. €œOur patients are what does zetia treat low-income and high risk, and we are seeing a high positivity rate.

When we catch these positive cases early, we are possibly saving hundreds of people from getting infected with COVID-19 by ensuring that they quarantine. By working closely with Guardant Health, we have gotten results quickly and have been able to keep our COVID-positive patients recovering at home, limiting the severity of the outbreak in this important community.”To learn more about what does zetia treat accessing the Guardant-19 test, email. Guardant19support@guardanthealth.com.About Guardant HealthGuardant Health is a leading precision oncology company focused on helping conquer cancer globally through use of its proprietary blood tests, vast data sets, and advanced analytics. The Guardant Health Oncology Platform leverages capabilities to drive commercial adoption, improve patient clinical outcomes and lower healthcare what does zetia treat costs across all stages of the cancer care continuum.

Guardant Health has launched liquid biopsy-based Guardant360® and GuardantOMNI® tests for advanced stage cancer patients. These tests fuel development of its LUNAR program, which aims to address the needs of early stage cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment selection, cancer survivors with surveillance, asymptomatic individuals eligible for cancer screening and individuals at a what does zetia treat higher risk for developing cancer with early detection.Investor Contact:Carrie Mendivilinvestors@guardanthealth.comMedia Contact:Anna Czenepress@guardanthealth.comCourtney Carrollcourtney.carroll@uncappedcommunications.com Source. Guardant Health, Inc..

REDWOOD CITY, zetia cost with medicare Calif., Sept. 01, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Guardant Health, Inc zetia cost with medicare. (Nasdaq. GH) today announced the company will be participating in the upcoming Morgan Stanley Virtual Healthcare Conference.Guardant Health’s management is scheduled for a fireside zetia cost with medicare chat on Tuesday, September 15 at 8:45 a.m. Pacific Time / 11:45 a.m.

Eastern Time zetia cost with medicare. Interested parties may access a live and archived webcast of the presentation on the “Investors” section of the company website at. Www.guardanthealth.com.About Guardant HealthGuardant Health is zetia cost with medicare a leading precision oncology company focused on helping conquer cancer globally through use of its proprietary blood tests, vast data sets, and advanced analytics. The Guardant Health Oncology Platform leverages capabilities to drive commercial adoption, improve patient clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs across all stages of the cancer care continuum. Guardant Health has launched zetia cost with medicare liquid biopsy-based Guardant360® and GuardantOMNI® tests for advanced stage cancer patients.

These tests fuel development of its LUNAR program, which aims to address the needs of early stage zetia cost with medicare cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment selection, cancer survivors with surveillance, asymptomatic individuals eligible for cancer screening and individuals at a higher risk for developing cancer with early detection.Investor Contact:Carrie Mendivilinvestors@guardanthealth.comMedia Contact:Anna Czenepress@guardanthealth.comCourtney Carrollcourtney.carroll@uncappedcommunications.com Source. Guardant Health, Inc.COVID-19 diagnostic expands testing supply, protects the continuity of essential cancer work at Guardant Health, and helps with reopening at Delaware State UniversityREDWOOD CITY, Calif., Aug. 24, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Guardant Health, Inc zetia cost with medicare. (Nasdaq. GH) announces that the zetia cost with medicare U.S.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted the Guardant-19 test emergency use authorization (EUA) for use in the detection of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. The test is being offered to Guardant Health employees and select partner organizations through the company’s CLIA-certified clinical laboratory.The Guardant-19 test is a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction next generation sequencing (rt-PCR-seq) zetia cost with medicare test that detects coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid from upper respiratory nasal specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, nasal swabs, interior nasal swabs, mid-turbinate nasal swabs, nasopharyngeal wash/aspirates, nasal aspirates, and nasal washes. The test has a validated limit of detection (LoD) of 125 copies per mL and results are typically returned the next day. The heavily multiplexed testing workflow used has the ability to scale to over 10,000 tests per day.“While serving cancer patients remains our top priority, we are proud zetia cost with medicare to be able to leverage our expertise in liquid biopsy testing to contribute to battling the COVID-19 pandemic by offering a highly accurate test that is truly additive to the testing options available today,” said AmirAli Talasaz, Guardant Health president. €œSince the beginning of the pandemic we believed it was our social responsibility to not only protect the zetia cost with medicare health and safety of our employees, but to also help our greater community with return to work and school initiatives.

It gives me great pride knowing that Guardant Health is able to deliver.”The Guardant-19 test is being used to help Delaware State University, a Historically Black College &. University, in its efforts to zetia cost with medicare reopen safely. €œGuardant is providing us with an innovative testing technology to help protect the safety of our entire campus community,” said Tony Allen, president of Delaware State University, which is being advised by nonprofit Testing for America on its reopening plans.“Our mission is to permanently and safely reopen schools, business and the US economy by providing affordable, accessible and frequent testing and screening. We believe that a testing option like the one provided by Guardant Health can help achieve the zetia cost with medicare highly accurate and rapid results at a scale that we need,” said Dr. Joan Coker, surgeon and Advisory Council member of Testing for America.The Healing Grove Health Center in San Jose, California is another partner organization.

€œWe are thankful for a high-throughput, fast, accurate COVID-19 test from Guardant Health,” said Brett Bymaster, the center’s executive director zetia cost with medicare. €œOur patients are low-income and high risk, and we are seeing a high positivity rate. When we catch these positive cases early, we are possibly saving hundreds of people from getting infected with zetia cost with medicare COVID-19 by ensuring that they quarantine. By working closely with Guardant Health, we have gotten results quickly and have been able to keep zetia cost with medicare our COVID-positive patients recovering at home, limiting the severity of the outbreak in this important community.”To learn more about accessing the Guardant-19 test, email. Guardant19support@guardanthealth.com.About Guardant HealthGuardant Health is a leading precision oncology company focused on helping conquer cancer globally through use of its proprietary blood tests, vast data sets, and advanced analytics.

The Guardant Health Oncology Platform leverages capabilities to drive commercial adoption, improve patient clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs across all stages zetia cost with medicare of the cancer care continuum. Guardant Health has launched liquid biopsy-based Guardant360® and GuardantOMNI® tests for advanced stage cancer patients. These tests fuel development of its LUNAR program, which aims to address the zetia cost with medicare needs of early stage cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment selection, cancer survivors with surveillance, asymptomatic individuals eligible for cancer screening and individuals at a higher risk for developing cancer with early detection.Investor Contact:Carrie Mendivilinvestors@guardanthealth.comMedia Contact:Anna Czenepress@guardanthealth.comCourtney Carrollcourtney.carroll@uncappedcommunications.com Source. Guardant Health, Inc.REDWOOD CITY, Calif., Sept. 01, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- zetia cost with medicare Guardant Health, Inc.

(Nasdaq. GH) today announced the company will be participating in the upcoming Morgan Stanley Virtual zetia cost with medicare Healthcare Conference.Guardant Health’s management is scheduled for a fireside chat on Tuesday, September 15 at 8:45 a.m. Pacific Time / 11:45 a.m. Eastern Time zetia cost with medicare. Interested parties may access a live and archived webcast of the presentation on the “Investors” section of the zetia cost with medicare company website at.

Www.guardanthealth.com.About Guardant HealthGuardant Health is a leading precision oncology company focused on helping conquer cancer globally through use of its proprietary blood tests, vast data sets, and advanced analytics. The Guardant Health Oncology Platform leverages capabilities to drive commercial adoption, improve patient clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs across all stages of the cancer care zetia cost with medicare continuum. Guardant Health has launched liquid biopsy-based Guardant360® and GuardantOMNI® tests for advanced stage cancer patients. These tests fuel development of its LUNAR program, which aims to address the needs of early stage cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment selection, cancer survivors with surveillance, asymptomatic individuals eligible for cancer screening and individuals at a higher risk for developing zetia cost with medicare cancer with early detection.Investor Contact:Carrie Mendivilinvestors@guardanthealth.comMedia Contact:Anna Czenepress@guardanthealth.comCourtney Carrollcourtney.carroll@uncappedcommunications.com Source. Guardant Health, Inc.COVID-19 diagnostic expands testing supply, protects the continuity of essential cancer work at Guardant Health, and helps with reopening at Delaware State UniversityREDWOOD CITY, Calif., Aug.

24, 2020 zetia cost with medicare (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Guardant Health, Inc. (Nasdaq. GH) announces that the zetia cost with medicare U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted the Guardant-19 test emergency use zetia cost with medicare authorization (EUA) for use in the detection of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. The test is being offered to Guardant Health employees and select partner organizations through the company’s CLIA-certified clinical laboratory.The Guardant-19 test is a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction next generation sequencing (rt-PCR-seq) test that detects coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid from upper respiratory nasal specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, nasal swabs, interior nasal swabs, mid-turbinate nasal swabs, nasopharyngeal wash/aspirates, nasal aspirates, and nasal washes.

The test zetia cost with medicare has a validated limit of detection (LoD) of 125 copies per mL and results are typically returned the next day. The heavily multiplexed testing workflow used has the ability to scale to over 10,000 tests per day.“While serving cancer patients remains our top priority, we are proud to be able to leverage our expertise in liquid biopsy testing to contribute to battling the COVID-19 pandemic by offering a highly accurate test that is truly additive to the testing options available today,” said AmirAli Talasaz, Guardant Health president. €œSince the zetia cost with medicare beginning of the pandemic we believed it was our social responsibility to not only protect the health and safety of our employees, but to also help our greater community with return to work and school initiatives. It gives me great pride knowing that Guardant Health is able to deliver.”The Guardant-19 test is being used to help Delaware State University, a Historically Black College &. University, in its efforts to zetia cost with medicare reopen safely.

€œGuardant is providing us with an innovative testing technology to help protect the safety of our entire campus community,” said Tony Allen, president of Delaware State University, which is being advised by nonprofit Testing for America on its reopening plans.“Our mission is to permanently and safely reopen schools, business and the US economy by providing affordable, accessible and frequent testing and screening. We believe that a testing option like the one provided by Guardant Health can help achieve the highly accurate and rapid results at a zetia cost with medicare scale that we need,” said Dr. Joan Coker, surgeon and Advisory Council member of Testing for America.The Healing zetia cost with medicare Grove Health Center in San Jose, California is another partner organization. €œWe are thankful for a high-throughput, fast, accurate COVID-19 test from Guardant Health,” said Brett Bymaster, the center’s executive director. €œOur patients are low-income and high risk, and we are zetia cost with medicare seeing a high positivity rate.

When we catch these positive cases early, we are possibly saving hundreds of people from getting infected with COVID-19 by ensuring that they quarantine. By working closely with Guardant Health, we have gotten results quickly and have been able to keep our COVID-positive patients recovering at home, limiting the severity of the outbreak in this important community.”To learn more about accessing the Guardant-19 test, email zetia cost with medicare. Guardant19support@guardanthealth.com.About Guardant HealthGuardant Health is a leading precision oncology company focused on helping conquer cancer globally through use of its proprietary blood tests, vast data sets, and advanced analytics. The Guardant Health Oncology Platform leverages capabilities to drive commercial adoption, improve patient clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs across all stages of the cancer zetia cost with medicare care continuum. Guardant Health has launched liquid biopsy-based Guardant360® and GuardantOMNI® tests for advanced stage cancer patients.

These tests fuel development of its zetia cost with medicare LUNAR program, which aims to address the needs of early stage cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment selection, cancer survivors with surveillance, asymptomatic individuals eligible for cancer screening and individuals at a higher risk for developing cancer with early detection.Investor Contact:Carrie Mendivilinvestors@guardanthealth.comMedia Contact:Anna Czenepress@guardanthealth.comCourtney Carrollcourtney.carroll@uncappedcommunications.com Source. Guardant Health, Inc..

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TTHealthWatch is a weekly coupon for zetia 10mg podcast from Texas Tech. In it, Elizabeth Tracey, director of electronic media for Johns Hopkins Medicine, and Rick Lange, MD, president of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso, look at the top medical stories of the week. A transcript of the podcast is below the summary.This week's topics include revascularization in people with both MI and shock, a new targeted therapy for some thyroid and lung cancers, remdesivir in moderate Covid disease, and the risk of Covid for those with cancer.Program notes:0:37 Cancer and COVID risk1:37 Specific type of cancer2:33 Individualized risk category3:33 Individual numbers were small4:03 Use coupon for zetia 10mg of remdesivir in moderate disease5:03 Used an ordinal scale to assess6:03 New targeted agent selpercatinib7:03 Overall 2% of cancers8:12 Valuable addition for this mutation9:06 Effective, durable and minimal side effects10:02 Identify the pathway and target10:26 Heart attack, shock and revascularization11:26 CATH-PCI registry12:09 May need additional procedures later13:14 EndTranscript:Elizabeth Tracey. How does COVID-19 affect people with cancer?. Rick Lange.

Best coronary interventions in people with heart attacks and shock.Elizabeth coupon for zetia 10mg. A new targeted agent for some types of thyroid and lung cancers.Rick. And remdesivir in people with moderate COVID infection -- helpful or not?. Elizabeth. That's what we're talking about this week on TT HealthWatch, your weekly look at the medical headlines from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso.

I'm Elizabeth Tracey, a Baltimore-based medical journalist.Rick. And I'm Rick Lange, President of Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso and Dean of the Paul L. Foster School of Medicine.Elizabeth. Rick, how about if we start with the COVID ones first and then we can move on to the ones that are not COVID?. This week, we have 50/50.

The first one I'd like to talk about is the one that's in Lancet Oncology. It's taking a look at COVID-19 and how does that impact on people with various types of cancer?. Their a priori hypothesis -- and I think many of us would have thought this also -- is that folks who have cancer probably are at higher likelihood of having more severe disease and poor outcomes.In the UK, they did a registry that's called the UK Coronavirus Cancer Monitoring Project. In this study, they looked between March 18th and May 8th. They had adult patients with cancer enrolled in this and then they also had a parallel non-COVID UK cancer control population.319 of their 1,044 patients in this cohort died and 92.5% of those had a cause of death recorded as due to COVID-19.

So the numbers compress, of course, and when they take a look at specific types of cancers, they find that it's the patients with leukemia who showed a significantly increased case fatality rate. They corrected, of course, for age and sex, and those hematologic malignancies, especially among those who had recently had chemotherapy, had an increased risk of death relative to COVID-19 admission.Rick. Obviously, there are a number of risk factors for having severe disease and death -- age, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, lung disease, kidney disease -- and people have assumed that cancer also increases your risk of having severe or life-threatening COVID infection.This study allowed the investigators to look at all types of cancers and what they found particularly was that the presence of a solid tumor cancer -- something like a kidney cancer, or a GI cancer, or even lung cancer -- did not increase the risk of having severe COVID infection or dying from COVID infection. It was just the hematologic malignancies that you mentioned. Now, what this allows them to do is to have an individualized risk categorization for each of the patients.

When you're taking care of a patient with lung cancer, do you have to be more or less concerned and therefore change your chemotherapy?. People have shortened radiotherapy, they've switched from IV to oral chemotherapy regimens, and they've also modified immunotherapy. It suggests that, in fact, in people with solid tumors that's probably not necessary.Elizabeth. I think all of this is good news because, of course, people have been extremely reluctant to come to medical centers and continue treatment because they've been concerned about COVID-19. As we've noted before, I feel substantially safer in the hospital than I feel anywhere else in town, so that concern, at least, is something I would probably put to rest.I think one thing that was somewhat disappointing about this study and that I would like to see confirmed is the numbers because, as we've talked about before, when you start to parse those into the various types of malignancies, I'd sure like to see much bigger numbers so that I could feel more comfortable with the outcomes.Rick.

Yep. Either individual numbers of pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer, and lung cancer were all small. But, again, they were able to take a large group -- solid tumors versus hematologic malignancies like leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma -- and those large categories were able to determine that it was the latter that had the increased risk. I agree, but these are the largest numbers we have to date.Elizabeth. Let's talk about your COVID one.

That's in the Journal of the American Medical Association, "How early should we be using remdesivir?. " That's what I'll call it.Rick. Even, should we at all?. Now you say, "Well, of course we should be. We've already had those studies and proven that." The studies that showed that remdesivir were helpful were those that had severe COVID infection.

They were hospitalized and they had a decrease in their blood oxygen content, hypoxia, or hypoxemia.In a large trial of over 1,000 people sponsored by the NIH, it showed that remdesivir, if done early, can actually decrease the hospital stay by 4 days, -- from 15 days to 11 days -- but there was no change in the mortality. That's the severe COVID-infected. What about those that have moderate COVID infection?. There were about 600 individuals. You have evidence of COVID infection, you have pulmonary infiltrates -- they could see it on your lungs -- but you don't require oxygen.

Those 600 people got randomized to either have 5 days of remdesivir, 10 days of remdesivir, or just standard care.Those that received 10 days versus those that received standard care, their outcome was essentially the same. Those that received 5 days of remdesivir appeared to do a little bit better, but the clinical significance of it really isn't very clear because they used what's called an ordinal scale that ranged from everything from, "Did the patient need hospitalization?. " to "Were they dead?. "Each of those things wasn't similarly affected by remdesivir and some are more significant than others. For example, dying is a much more significant event than going to be hospitalized or needing to be put on nasal oxygen.

The authors were really kind of muted. They said, "Well, it looks like it could be beneficial." But clinical significance, really not very evident.Elizabeth. And it's kind of expensive, so putting people on that stuff if they don't really need it doesn't make any sense to me. Remind me again about the side effect profile.Rick. Relatively minor side effects.

Now, it's interesting because only about three-fourths of the individuals actually completed the 5-day course. Only about 40% completed the 10-day course because they left the hospital earlier, which made it even a little bit more complicated. I think that the studies show for people with severe infection, it can shorten your hospital stay. But in those with moderate infection, I'd say the jury's still out.Elizabeth. Leaving our COVID things then, let's turn to the New England Journal of Medicine, back to cancer, a new targeted agent called selpercatinib, which takes aim at specific mutations that are called RET -- that's capital R-E-T- -- altered cancers.

There are two studies that are in here, one taking a look at thyroid cancers and the other taking a look at non-small cell lung cancers.It turns out that with regard to the thyroid cancers, more than 50% of sporadic medullary thyroid cancers have this particular RET mutation and 10% to 20% of papillary thyroid cancers. [There are] much smaller percentages of non-small cell lung cancers in the second study, but also colorectal, breast, and other cancers.This particular mutation generates docking sites for downstream signaling adapters and that activates multiple key cancer effectors, so that's how this thing works. And when you take a look overall among a group of diverse cancers, these aberrations have been identified in approximately 2% of the cases of cancer.In the thyroid cancers, they had 55 patients with the medullary thyroid cancer previously treated. Sixty-nine percent had a response to the agent with 82% progression-free survival at one year. Among 88 patients who had the same mutation and medullary thyroid cancer not previously treated, only 73% -- which I think is a little curious -- had a response to selpercatinib, while 92% had progression-free survival at one year.

Finally, in 15 of 19 patients with previously treated RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer, 79% had a response.With regard to non-small cell lung cancer, they had 105 patients with this mutation, previously been treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, 64% response, and 39 previously untreated patients, 85% had a response. And finally, in 10 of 11 patients with central nervous system metastases had an intracranial response to the agent.This looks like a valuable addition for that 2% of total cancers that express this particular mutation and suggests to me that something we've asserted many times about cancer, that clinically we call it cancer -- but actually, if we take a look at really what this disease is, it's a multitude of different diseases.Rick. Elizabeth, and I'm glad you brought that point up because this therapy was effective in lung cancer and thyroid cancer. You say, "Well, those are two different organs." But the mechanism for the growth of the cancer was the same in both these of types of cancers.As you mentioned, it's the RET protein. That RET protein typically signals growth of cells.

When it mutates or fuses, there's uncontrolled growth of these cells. That's what causes cancer. So what we're moving from is an organ-specific therapy to the molecular mechanisms behind it so we can get really specific targeted therapies.This particular RET therapy was effective, it was durable, and importantly, the side effects were really minimal. Only 2% to 3% percent of individuals that were taking the medication had to stop it because of the side effects. It's one of several different targeted therapies that's now available.Elizabeth.

Right. I guess one of my concerns is a) the expense of developing these targeted therapies and getting them to market, and b) the fact that overall 2% of cancers manifest this particular mutation. So does that mean we're going to peck away at all of these different mutations in order to develop that entire armamentarium of targeted agents that are going to help everybody with cancer?. Rick. That's a great question.

I can foresee a time we look at those individual pathways that we know, and although this one may account for less than 2% of cancers, another one may be 5%, another one be 4% or 3%. So in toto, what we should be able to do is identify the pathways that are activated in a particular cancer and have specific therapies towards that. I think that's the future. It's targeted therapy towards the molecular mechanism, not targeted towards the organ.Elizabeth. Well, I'm just going to say that what I'm hoping for the future is that we're going to develop blood tests that are specific for this, be able to catch the things super early before they even start to manifest as any particular tumor type.

Let's turn to your final one in JAMA Internal Medicine.Rick. Elizabeth, we're going to talk about individuals who have heart attacks -- then after that, or as a result of that, have shock, and their mortality's been very high, as high as 50%.Now, we know that when someone's having a heart attack, if you open their artery up, restore blood flow, you improve their overall outcome. But 70% to 80% of these people that have heart attacks and shock have more than one blood vessel involved. Only one has the clot that's caused the acute heart attack, but there are other blood vessels with blockages or stenosis.The question is when you're taking pictures and you identify that, do you just open the one artery or should you open all the arteries to improve overall outcome?. That's what this study addressed.

Do we do just the culprit vessel or do all vessels to do this?. This is a follow-up on a randomized controlled trial.Now, you say, "Well, why would you want to do this after a randomized controlled trial that showed that only doing the culprit vessel was the best way to do it?. " Well, because it's a very selected population and sometimes it's not a real-world experience. To address whether this applies in the real world, they used results from the CathPCI Registry. That's a registry of everybody that has a cardiac catheterization.There were over 64,000 patients at over 1,600 hospitals that had a heart attack and shock.

Some of those individuals had all the blood vessels opened, about a third of them did, and about two-thirds just had that single blood vessel opened.Doing the single blood vessel ended up with a better outcome. If you opened all blood vessels, you had a higher risk of dying and a higher risk of having complications as a result of the procedure as well.Elizabeth. A couple of other things that they mentioned in this study. One is that when you only have the culprit vessel done, you were at higher risk for subsequent ... Requiring additional revascularization or readmission for heart failure down the road.Rick.

You may need to have additional procedures in some patients down the road, but the thing is they live through the hospitalization. You don't kill them during the hospitalization [because] of complication.Here's why this is particularly important. When people present with a heart attack and don't have shock but have multi-vessel disease, studies have shown they do better if you open all their blood vessels up.Ten years ago I helped write those guidelines. We would have said, "Oh, my goodness. When you're having an acute heart attack, don't open all the blood vessels.

When you're having shock, open them all up." Now what the studies have shown is just the opposite.Elizabeth. That's so fascinating and so tell me, how often do shock and MI occur together?. Rick. That's a great question. It's obviously more likely to occur in people that have either had a previous heart attack or [are] older.

I would say it's probably in the neighborhood of about 10% or 15%. Most people with acute heart attack don't have shock. But those that do, the mortality is very high.Elizabeth. Good information, then. On that note, that's a look at this week's medical headlines from Texas Tech.

I'm Elizabeth Tracey.Rick. I'm Rick Lange. Y'all listen up and make healthy choices. Last Updated August 28, 2020.

TTHealthWatch is a weekly podcast from Texas zetia cost with medicare Tech. In it, Elizabeth Tracey, director of electronic media for Johns Hopkins Medicine, and Rick Lange, MD, president of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso, look at the top medical stories of the week. A transcript of the podcast is below the summary.This week's topics include revascularization in people with both MI and shock, a new targeted therapy for some thyroid and lung cancers, remdesivir in moderate Covid disease, and the risk of Covid for those with cancer.Program notes:0:37 Cancer and COVID risk1:37 Specific type of cancer2:33 Individualized risk category3:33 zetia cost with medicare Individual numbers were small4:03 Use of remdesivir in moderate disease5:03 Used an ordinal scale to assess6:03 New targeted agent selpercatinib7:03 Overall 2% of cancers8:12 Valuable addition for this mutation9:06 Effective, durable and minimal side effects10:02 Identify the pathway and target10:26 Heart attack, shock and revascularization11:26 CATH-PCI registry12:09 May need additional procedures later13:14 EndTranscript:Elizabeth Tracey.

How does COVID-19 affect people with cancer?. Rick Lange. Best coronary interventions in people with heart attacks and zetia cost with medicare shock.Elizabeth.

A new targeted agent for some types of thyroid and lung cancers.Rick. And remdesivir in people with moderate COVID infection -- helpful or not?. Elizabeth.

That's what we're talking about this week on TT HealthWatch, your weekly look at the medical headlines from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso. I'm Elizabeth Tracey, a Baltimore-based medical journalist.Rick. And I'm Rick Lange, President of Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso and Dean of the Paul L.

Foster School of Medicine.Elizabeth. Rick, how about if we start with the COVID ones first and then we can move on to the ones that are not COVID?. This week, we have 50/50.

The first one I'd like to talk about is the one that's in Lancet Oncology. It's taking a look at COVID-19 and how does that impact on people with various types of cancer?. Their a priori hypothesis -- and I think many of us would have thought this also -- is that folks who have cancer probably are at higher likelihood of having more severe disease and poor outcomes.In the UK, they did a registry that's called the UK Coronavirus Cancer Monitoring Project.

In this study, they looked between March 18th and May 8th. They had adult patients with cancer enrolled in this and then they also had a parallel non-COVID UK cancer control population.319 of their 1,044 patients in this cohort died and 92.5% of those had a cause of death recorded as due to COVID-19. So the numbers compress, of course, and when they take a look at specific types of cancers, they find that it's the patients with leukemia who showed a significantly increased case fatality rate.

They corrected, of course, for age and sex, and those hematologic malignancies, especially among those who had recently had chemotherapy, had an increased risk of death relative to COVID-19 admission.Rick. Obviously, there are a number of risk factors for having severe disease and death -- age, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, lung disease, kidney disease -- and people have assumed that cancer also increases your risk of having severe or life-threatening COVID infection.This study allowed the investigators to look at all types of cancers and what they found particularly was that the presence of a solid tumor cancer -- something like a kidney cancer, or a GI cancer, or even lung cancer -- did not increase the risk of having severe COVID infection or dying from COVID infection. It was just the hematologic malignancies that you mentioned.

Now, what this allows them to do is to have an individualized risk categorization for each of the patients. When you're taking care of a patient with lung cancer, do you have to be more or less concerned and therefore change your chemotherapy?. People have shortened radiotherapy, they've switched from IV to oral chemotherapy regimens, and they've also modified immunotherapy.

It suggests that, in fact, in people with solid tumors that's probably not necessary.Elizabeth. I think all of this is good news because, of course, people have been extremely reluctant to come to medical centers and continue treatment because they've been concerned about COVID-19. As we've noted before, I feel substantially safer in the hospital than I feel anywhere else in town, so that concern, at least, is something I would probably put to rest.I think one thing that was somewhat disappointing about this study and that I would like to see confirmed is the numbers because, as we've talked about before, when you start to parse those into the various types of malignancies, I'd sure like to see much bigger numbers so that I could feel more comfortable with the outcomes.Rick.

Yep. Either individual numbers of pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer, and lung cancer were all small. But, again, they were able to take a large group -- solid tumors versus hematologic malignancies like leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma -- and those large categories were able to determine that it was the latter that had the increased risk.

I agree, but these are the largest numbers we have to date.Elizabeth. Let's talk about your COVID one. That's in the Journal of the American Medical Association, "How early should we be using remdesivir?.

" That's what I'll call it.Rick. Even, should we at all?. Now you say, "Well, of course we should be.

We've already had those studies and proven that." The studies that showed that remdesivir were helpful were those that had severe COVID infection. They were hospitalized and they had a decrease in their blood oxygen content, hypoxia, or hypoxemia.In a large trial of over 1,000 people sponsored by the NIH, it showed that remdesivir, if done early, can actually decrease the hospital stay by 4 days, -- from 15 days to 11 days -- but there was no change in the mortality. That's the severe COVID-infected.

What about those that have moderate COVID infection?. There were about 600 individuals. You have evidence of COVID infection, you have pulmonary infiltrates -- they could see it on your lungs -- but you don't require oxygen.

Those 600 people got randomized to either have 5 days of remdesivir, 10 days of remdesivir, or just standard care.Those that received 10 days versus those that received standard care, their outcome was essentially the same. Those that received 5 days of remdesivir appeared to do a little bit better, but the clinical significance of it really isn't very clear because they used what's called an ordinal scale that ranged from everything from, "Did the patient need hospitalization?. " to "Were they dead?.

"Each of those things wasn't similarly affected by remdesivir and some are more significant than others. For example, dying is a much more significant event than going to be hospitalized or needing to be put on nasal oxygen. The authors were really kind of muted.

They said, "Well, it looks like it could be beneficial." But clinical significance, really not very evident.Elizabeth. And it's kind of expensive, so putting people on that stuff if they don't really need it doesn't make any sense to me. Remind me again about the side effect profile.Rick.

Relatively minor side effects. Now, it's interesting because only about three-fourths of the individuals actually completed the 5-day course. Only about 40% completed the 10-day course because they left the hospital earlier, which made it even a little bit more complicated.

I think that the studies show for people with severe infection, it can shorten your hospital stay. But in those with moderate infection, I'd say the jury's still out.Elizabeth. Leaving our COVID things then, let's turn to the New England Journal of Medicine, back to cancer, a new targeted agent called selpercatinib, which takes aim at specific mutations that are called RET -- that's capital R-E-T- -- altered cancers.

There are two studies that are in here, one taking a look at thyroid cancers and the other taking a look at non-small cell lung cancers.It turns out that with regard to the thyroid cancers, more than 50% of sporadic medullary thyroid cancers have this particular RET mutation and 10% to 20% of papillary thyroid cancers. [There are] much smaller percentages of non-small cell lung cancers in the second study, but also colorectal, breast, and other cancers.This particular mutation generates docking sites for downstream signaling adapters and that activates multiple key cancer effectors, so that's how this thing works. And when you take a look overall among a group of diverse cancers, these aberrations have been identified in approximately 2% of the cases of cancer.In the thyroid cancers, they had 55 patients with the medullary thyroid cancer previously treated.

Sixty-nine percent had a response to the agent with 82% progression-free survival at one year. Among 88 patients who had the same mutation and medullary thyroid cancer not previously treated, only 73% -- which I think is a little curious -- had a response to selpercatinib, while 92% had progression-free survival at one year. Finally, in 15 of 19 patients with previously treated RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer, 79% had a response.With regard to non-small cell lung cancer, they had 105 patients with this mutation, previously been treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, 64% response, and 39 previously untreated patients, 85% had a response.

And finally, in 10 of 11 patients with central nervous system metastases had an intracranial response to the agent.This looks like a valuable addition for that 2% of total cancers that express this particular mutation and suggests to me that something we've asserted many times about cancer, that clinically we call it cancer -- but actually, if we take a look at really what this disease is, it's a multitude of different diseases.Rick. Elizabeth, and I'm glad you brought that point up because this therapy was effective in lung cancer and thyroid cancer. You say, "Well, those are two different organs." But the mechanism for the growth of the cancer was the same in both these of types of cancers.As you mentioned, it's the RET protein.

That RET protein typically signals growth of cells. When it mutates or fuses, there's uncontrolled growth of these cells. That's what causes cancer.

So what we're moving from is an organ-specific therapy to the molecular mechanisms behind it so we can get really specific targeted therapies.This particular RET therapy was effective, it was durable, and importantly, the side effects were really minimal. Only 2% to 3% percent of individuals that were taking the medication had to stop it because of the side effects. It's one of several different targeted therapies that's now available.Elizabeth.

Right. I guess one of my concerns is a) the expense of developing these targeted therapies and getting them to market, and b) the fact that overall 2% of cancers manifest this particular mutation. So does that mean we're going to peck away at all of these different mutations in order to develop that entire armamentarium of targeted agents that are going to help everybody with cancer?.

Rick. That's a great question. I can foresee a time we look at those individual pathways that we know, and although this one may account for less than 2% of cancers, another one may be 5%, another one be 4% or 3%.

So in toto, what we should be able to do is identify the pathways that are activated in a particular cancer and have specific therapies towards that. I think that's the future. It's targeted therapy towards the molecular mechanism, not targeted towards the organ.Elizabeth.

Well, I'm just going to say that what I'm hoping for the future is that we're going to develop blood tests that are specific for this, be able to catch the things super early before they even start to manifest as any particular tumor type. Let's turn to your final one in JAMA Internal Medicine.Rick. Elizabeth, we're going to talk about individuals who have heart attacks -- then after that, or as a result of that, have shock, and their mortality's been very high, as high as 50%.Now, we know that when someone's having a heart attack, if you open their artery up, restore blood flow, you improve their overall outcome.

But 70% to 80% of these people that have heart attacks and shock have more than one blood vessel involved. Only one has the clot that's caused the acute heart attack, but there are other blood vessels with blockages or stenosis.The question is when you're taking pictures and you identify that, do you just open the one artery or should you open all the arteries to improve overall outcome?. That's what this study addressed.

Do we do just the culprit vessel or do all vessels to do this?. This is a follow-up on a randomized controlled trial.Now, you say, "Well, why would you want to do this after a randomized controlled trial that showed that only doing the culprit vessel was the best way to do it?. " Well, because it's a very selected population and sometimes it's not a real-world experience.

To address whether this applies in the real world, they used results from the CathPCI Registry. That's a registry of everybody that has a cardiac catheterization.There were over 64,000 patients at over 1,600 hospitals that had a heart attack and shock. Some of those individuals had all the blood vessels opened, about a third of them did, and about two-thirds just had that single blood vessel opened.Doing the single blood vessel ended up with a better outcome.

If you opened all blood vessels, you had a higher risk of dying and a higher risk of having complications as a result of the procedure as well.Elizabeth. A couple of other things that they mentioned in this study. One is that when you only have the culprit vessel done, you were at higher risk for subsequent ...

Requiring additional revascularization or readmission for heart failure down the road.Rick. You may need to have additional procedures in some patients down the road, but the thing is they live through the hospitalization. You don't kill them during the hospitalization [because] of complication.Here's why this is particularly important.

When people present with a heart attack and don't have shock but have multi-vessel disease, studies have shown they do better if you open all their blood vessels up.Ten years ago I helped write those guidelines. We would have said, "Oh, my goodness. When you're having an acute heart attack, don't open all the blood vessels.

When you're having shock, open them all up." Now what the studies have shown is just the opposite.Elizabeth. That's so fascinating and so tell me, how often do shock and MI occur together?. Rick.

That's a great question. It's obviously more likely to occur in people that have either had a previous heart attack or [are] older. I would say it's probably in the neighborhood of about 10% or 15%.

Most people with acute heart attack don't have shock. But those that do, the mortality is very high.Elizabeth. Good information, then.

On that note, that's a look at this week's medical headlines from Texas Tech. I'm Elizabeth Tracey.Rick. I'm Rick Lange.

Y'all listen up and make healthy choices. Last Updated August 28, 2020.