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€œDespite a new wave which began on 25 July which Viet Nam is now also in the process of bringing under http://www.posrcumlad.si/where-can-you-get-farxiga/ effective control, it is globally recognized that Viet Nam demonstrated one of the world’s most successful responses to the what do you need to buy farxiga COVID-19 pandemic between January and April 16. After that date, no cases of local transmission were recorded for 99 consecutive days.There were less than 400 cases of infection across the country during that period, most of what do you need to buy farxiga them imported, and zero deaths, a remarkable accomplishment considering the country’s population of 96 million people and the fact that it shares a 1,450 km land border with China.Long-term planning pays offKamal Malhotra is the UN Resident Coordinator in Viet Nam. , by UN Viet Nam/Nguyen Duc HieuViet Nam’s success has drawn international attention because of its early, proactive, response, led by the government, and involving the whole political system, and all aspects of the society.

With the support of theWorld Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, Viet Nam had already put a long-term plan in place, to enable it to cope with public health emergencies, what do you need to buy farxiga building on its experience dealing with previous disease outbreaks, such as SARS, which it also handled remarkably well.Viet Nam’s successful management of the COVID-19 outbreak so far can, therefore, be at least partly put down to the its investment during “peacetime”. The country has now demonstrated that preparedness to deal with infectious disease is a key ingredient for protecting people and securing public health in times of pandemics such as COVID-19.As early as January 2020, Viet Nam conducted its first risk assessment, immediately after the identification of a cluster of cases of “severe pneumonia with unknown etiology” in Wuhan, China. From the time that the first two COVID-19 cases were confirmed what do you need to buy farxiga in Viet Nam in the second half of January 2020, the government started to put precautionary measures into effect by strengthening entry-screening measures and extending the Tết (Lunar New Year) holiday for schools.

© UNICEFTeachers and students were able to return to school in Lao Cai, Viet Nam, in May.By 13 February 2020, the number of cases had climbed to 16 with limited local transmission detected in a village near the capital city, Hanoi. As this had the potential to cause a further spread of the virus in Viet Nam, what do you need to buy farxiga the country implemented a targeted three-week village-wide quarantine, affecting 11,000 people. There were then no further local cases for three weeks.But Viet Nam had simultaneously developed its broader quarantine and isolation policy to control COVID-19.

As the next wave began in early March, through an imported what do you need to buy farxiga case from the UK, the government knew that it was crucial to contain virus transmission as fast as possible, in order also to safeguard its economy.Viet Nam therefore closed its borders and suspended international flights from mainland China in February, extending this to UK, Europe, the US and then the rest of the world progressively in March, whilst requiring all travelers entering the country, including its nationals, to undergo 14-day mandatory quarantine on arrival.This helped the authorities keep track of imported cases of COVID-19 and prevent further local transmission which could have then led to wider community transmission. Both the military and local governments were mobilized to provide testing, meals and amenity services to all quarantine facilities which remained free during this period.No lockdown requiredWhile there was never a nationwide lockdown, some restrictive physical distancing measures were implemented throughout the country. On 1 April 2020, the Prime Minister issued a nationwide two week physical distancing directive, which was extended by a week in major what do you need to buy farxiga cities and hotspots.

People were advised to stay at home, non-essential businesses were requested to close, and public transportation was limited.Such measures were so successful that, by early May, following two weeks without a locally confirmed case, schools and businesses resumed their operations and people could return to regular routines. Green One UN House, the home of most UN agencies in Viet Nam, remained open throughout this period, with the Resident Coordinator, WHO Representative and approximately 200 UN staff and consultants physically in the office throughout this period, to provide vital support to the Government and people of Viet Nam.Notably, the what do you need to buy farxiga Vietnamese public had been exceptionally compliant with government directives and advice, partly as a result of trust built up thanks to real time, transparent communication from the Ministry of Health, supported by the WHO and other UN agencies. Innovative methods were used to keep the public informed and safe.

For instance, regular text updates were sent by the Ministry of Health, on preventive what do you need to buy farxiga measures and COVID-19’s symptoms. A COVID-19 song was released, with lyrics raising public awareness of the disease, which later went viral on social media with a dance challenge on Tik Tok initiated by Quang Dang, a local celebrity.. UN Viet Nam/Nguyen Duc HieuYoung people in Viet Nam take part in International Youth Day 2020 festivities in June what do you need to buy farxiga.

Protecting the vulnerableStill, challenges remain to ensure that the people across the country, especially the hardest hit people, from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and poor and vulnerable groups, are well served by an adequately resourced and effectively implemented social protection package. The UN in Viet Nam is keen to help the government support clean technology-based SMEs, with the cooperation of international financial institutions, which will need to do things differently from the past and embrace a new, more what do you need to buy farxiga inclusive and sustainable, perspective on growth.Challenges remainAs I write, Viet Nam stands at a critical point with respect to COVID-19. On 25 July, 99 days after being COVID-free in terms of local transmission, a new case was confirmed in Da Nang, a well-known tourist destination.

Hundreds of thousands of people flocked to the city and surrounding region over the summer.The government is once again demonstrating its serious commitment what do you need to buy farxiga to containing local virus transmission. While there have been a few hundred new local transmission cases and 24 deaths, all centered in a major hospital in Danang (sadly, all the deaths were of people with multiple pre-conditions) aggressive contact tracing, proactive case management, extensive quarantining measures and comprehensive public communication activities are taking place.I am confident that the country will be successful in its efforts to once again successfully contain the virus, once more over the next few weeks.”.

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In places where most people wore masks, those who did get infected seemed dramatically less likely to get severely ill compared to places with less mask-wearing.It seems people get less sick if they wear a farxiga invokana jardiance mask.When you wear a mask – even a cloth mask – you typically are exposed to a lower dose of the coronavirus than if you didn’t. Both recent experiments in animal models using coronavirus and nearly a hundred years of viral research show that lower viral doses usually means less severe disease.No mask is perfect, and wearing one might not prevent you from getting infected. But it might be the difference between a case of COVID-19 that sends you to the hospital and a case so mild you don’t even realize you’re infected.Exposure Dose Determines Severity of DiseaseWhen you breathe in a respiratory virus, it immediately begins hijacking any cells it lands near to farxiga invokana jardiance turn them into virus production machines. The immune system tries to stop this process to halt the spread of the virus.The amount of virus that you’re exposed to – called the viral inoculum, or dose – has a lot to do with how sick you get. If the exposure dose is very high, the immune response can farxiga invokana jardiance become overwhelmed.

Between the virus taking over huge numbers of cells and the immune system’s drastic efforts to contain the infection, a lot of damage is done to the body and a person can become very sick.On the other hand, if the initial dose of the virus is small, the immune system is able to contain the virus with less drastic measures. If this happens, the person experiences fewer symptoms, if any.This concept of viral dose being related to disease severity has been farxiga invokana jardiance around for almost a century. Many animal studies have shown that the higher the dose of a virus you give an animal, the more sick it becomes. In 2015, farxiga invokana jardiance researchers tested this concept in human volunteers using a nonlethal flu virus and found the same result. The higher the flu virus dose given to the volunteers, the sicker they became.In July, researchers published a paper showing that viral dose was related to disease severity in hamsters exposed to the coronavirus.

Hamsters who were given a higher viral dose got more sick than hamsters given a lower dose.Based on this body of research, it seems very likely that if you are exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the lower the dose, the farxiga invokana jardiance less sick you will get.So what can a person do to lower the exposure dose?. Masks Reduce Viral DoseMost infectious disease researchers and epidemiologists believe that the coronavirus is mostly spread by airborne farxiga invokana jardiance droplets and, to a lesser extent, tiny aerosols. Research shows that both cloth and surgical masks can block the majority of particles that could contain SARS-CoV-2. While no mask is perfect, the goal is not to block all of the virus, but simply reduce the amount that you farxiga invokana jardiance might inhale. Almost any mask will successfully block some amount.Laboratory experiments have shown that good cloth masks and surgical masks could block at least 80% of viral particles from entering your nose and mouth.

Those particles and other contaminants will get trapped in the fibers of the mask, so the CDC recommends washing your cloth mask after each use if possible.The final piece of experimental evidence showing that masks reduce viral farxiga invokana jardiance dose comes from another hamster experiment. Hamsters were divided into an unmasked group and a masked group by placing surgical mask material over the pipes that brought air into the cages of the masked group. Hamsters infected with the coronavirus were placed in cages next to the masked farxiga invokana jardiance and unmasked hamsters, and air was pumped from the infected cages into the cages with uninfected hamsters.As expected, the masked hamsters were less likely to get infected with COVID-19. But when some of the masked hamsters did get infected, they had more mild disease than the unmasked hamsters.Masks Increase Rate of Asymptomatic CasesIn July, the CDC estimated that around 40% of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 are asymptomatic, and a number of other studies have confirmed this number.However, in places where everyone wears masks, the rate of asymptomatic infection seems to be much higher. In an outbreak on an Australian cruise ship called the Greg farxiga invokana jardiance Mortimer in late March, the passengers were all given surgical masks and the staff were given N95 masks after the first case of COVID-19 was identified.

Mask usage was apparently very high, and even though 128 of the 217 passengers and staff eventually tested positive for the coronavirus, 81% of the infected people remained asymptomatic.Further evidence has come from two more recent outbreaks, the first at a seafood processing plant in Oregon and the second at a chicken processing plant in Arkansas. In both places, the workers were provided masks and farxiga invokana jardiance required to wear them at all times. In the outbreaks from both plants, nearly 95% of infected people were asymptomatic.There is no doubt that universal mask wearing slows the spread of the coronavirus. My colleagues farxiga invokana jardiance and I believe that evidence from laboratory experiments, case studies like the cruise ship and food processing plant outbreaks and long-known biological principles make a strong case that masks protect the wearer too.The goal of any tool to fight this pandemic is to slow the spread of the virus and save lives. Universal masking will do both.Monica Gandhi is a Professor of Medicine with the Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases and Global Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.

This article originally appeared on The Conversation and is republished farxiga invokana jardiance under a Creative Commons license. Read the original here..

Masks slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2 by reducing how much infected people spray the virus into the environment around them when what do you need to buy farxiga they cough or talk. Evidence from laboratory experiments, hospitals and whole countries show that masks work, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends face what do you need to buy farxiga coverings for the U.S. Public.

With all this evidence, what do you need to buy farxiga mask wearing has become the norm in many places.I am an infectious disease doctor and a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. As governments and workplaces began to recommend or mandate mask wearing, my colleagues and I noticed an interesting trend. In places where most people wore masks, those who did get infected seemed dramatically less likely to get severely ill what do you need to buy farxiga compared to places with less mask-wearing.It seems people get less sick if they wear a mask.When you wear a mask – even a cloth mask – you typically are exposed to a lower dose of the coronavirus than if you didn’t.

Both recent experiments in animal models using coronavirus and nearly a hundred years of viral research show that lower viral doses usually means less severe disease.No mask is perfect, and wearing one might not prevent you from getting infected. But it might be the difference between a case of COVID-19 that sends you to the hospital and a case so mild you don’t what do you need to buy farxiga even realize you’re infected.Exposure Dose Determines Severity of DiseaseWhen you breathe in a respiratory virus, it immediately begins hijacking any cells it lands near to turn them into virus production machines. The immune system tries to stop this process to halt the spread of the virus.The amount of virus that you’re exposed to – called the viral inoculum, or dose – has a lot to do with how sick you get.

If the what do you need to buy farxiga exposure dose is very high, the immune response can become overwhelmed. Between the virus taking over huge numbers of cells and the immune system’s drastic efforts to contain the infection, a lot of damage is done to the body and a person can become very sick.On the other hand, if the initial dose of the virus is small, the immune system is able to contain the virus with less drastic measures. If this happens, the person experiences fewer symptoms, if any.This concept of viral dose being related to disease severity has been what do you need to buy farxiga around for almost a century.

Many animal studies have shown that the higher the dose of a virus you give an animal, the more sick it becomes. In 2015, researchers tested this concept in human volunteers using what do you need to buy farxiga a nonlethal flu virus and found the same result. The higher the flu virus dose given to the volunteers, the sicker they became.In July, researchers published a paper showing that viral dose was related to disease severity in hamsters exposed to the coronavirus.

Hamsters who were given a higher viral dose got more sick than hamsters given a lower dose.Based on this body of research, it seems very likely that if you what do you need to buy farxiga are exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the lower the dose, the less sick you will get.So what can a person do to lower the exposure dose?. Masks Reduce Viral DoseMost infectious disease researchers and what do you need to buy farxiga epidemiologists believe that the coronavirus is mostly spread by airborne droplets and, to a lesser extent, tiny aerosols. Research shows that both cloth and surgical masks can block the majority of particles that could contain SARS-CoV-2.

While no mask is perfect, the goal is not to block all of the virus, what do you need to buy farxiga but simply reduce the amount that you might inhale. Almost any mask will successfully block some amount.Laboratory experiments have shown that good cloth masks and surgical masks could block at least 80% of viral particles from entering your nose and mouth. Those particles and other what do you need to buy farxiga contaminants will get trapped in the fibers of the mask, so the CDC recommends washing your cloth mask after each use if possible.The final piece of experimental evidence showing that masks reduce viral dose comes from another hamster experiment.

Hamsters were divided into an unmasked group and a masked group by placing surgical mask material over the pipes that brought air into the cages of the masked group. Hamsters infected what do you need to buy farxiga with the coronavirus were placed in cages next to the masked and unmasked hamsters, and air was pumped from the infected cages into the cages with uninfected hamsters.As expected, the masked hamsters were less likely to get infected with COVID-19. But when some of the masked hamsters did get infected, they had more mild disease than the unmasked hamsters.Masks Increase Rate of Asymptomatic CasesIn July, the CDC estimated that around 40% of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 are asymptomatic, and a number of other studies have confirmed this number.However, in places where everyone wears masks, the rate of asymptomatic infection seems to be much higher.

In an outbreak on an Australian cruise ship called the Greg Mortimer in late March, the passengers were all given surgical masks and the staff were given N95 what do you need to buy farxiga masks after the first case of COVID-19 was identified. Mask usage was apparently very high, and even though 128 of the 217 passengers and staff eventually tested positive for the coronavirus, 81% of the infected people remained asymptomatic.Further evidence has come from two more recent outbreaks, the first at a seafood processing plant in Oregon and the second at a chicken processing plant in Arkansas. In both places, the what do you need to buy farxiga workers were provided masks and required to wear them at all times.

In the outbreaks from both plants, nearly 95% of infected people were asymptomatic.There is no doubt that universal mask wearing slows the spread of the coronavirus. My colleagues and I believe that evidence from laboratory experiments, case studies like the cruise ship and food processing plant outbreaks and long-known biological principles make a strong case that masks protect the wearer too.The goal what do you need to buy farxiga of any tool to fight this pandemic is to slow the spread of the virus and save lives. Universal masking will do both.Monica Gandhi is a Professor of Medicine with the Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases and Global Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.

This article originally appeared on The Conversation and is republished under what do you need to buy farxiga a Creative Commons license. Read the original here..

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The wildfire season is farxiga class action lawsuit off to a roaring start. The hot summer is worsening drought and drying out vegetation—an unfortunately ideal environment for wildfires to rage. But that’s just one consequence of global warming farxiga class action lawsuit. It’s also leading to flooding, torrential rainstorms and heat-related deaths.

In fact, the climate crisis has led to a widespread public health crisis. And as an ear, nose and throat physician, I see the effects more and farxiga class action lawsuit more often. I vividly remember a patient who came in late for her appointment during a July heat wave. When I walked in, she said, “I’m so sorry I’m late, I was up all night walking my grandbaby around the train station.” Without air conditioning at home, the child was sweating through her clothes in the heat of the night, putting her at risk for dehydration.

July 2019 was the hottest July on record farxiga class action lawsuit. September 2019 was the hottest on record. January 2020 was the hottest on record. May 2020 farxiga class action lawsuit was the hottest on record.

This is not a coincidence. It is a pattern. Carbon dioxide, an important greenhouse gas contributing to global warming, has increased by 9 percent since 2005 and by 31 farxiga class action lawsuit percent since 1950. A U.N.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change special report pointed out that the world farxiga class action lawsuit has already warmed about one degree Celsius from pre-industrial levels. It stressed the urgency to act to limit warming to 1.5 degrees, and that a two-degree increase will lead to unprecedented extreme heat, water scarcity and food shortages around the globe. Heat affects every part of our body. It can lead to heat exhaustion, heat stroke, anxiety, impaired cognitive function and even premature death from farxiga class action lawsuit heart and lung disease.

Across the country, the health concerns of the climate crisis are increasingly being recognized, pushing thousands of medical providers—doctors, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, medical students—to become advocates for change. In my own practice, I explain to patients how the climate crisis affects their health. For example, apart from contributing to global warming, farxiga class action lawsuit rising carbon dioxide levels increase the amount of pollen that plants produce as a consequence of higher rates of photosynthesis. This rise in pollen levels can lead to worsening allergy symptoms.

Another example is fine particulate matter (known as PM2.5) associated with air pollution, much of it linked to the burning of fossil fuels that help drive the warming. When we farxiga class action lawsuit breathe in these particles, they travel down the airway and settle in the tiny air sacs called alveoli of the lungs, causing inflammation and potentially worsening asthma symptoms. The explanations are simple, but the health risks are widespread and complex. Ground-level ozone pollution, which is worse in hotter weather, can also harm people with asthma and other respiratory diseases.

And that harm farxiga class action lawsuit falls disproportionately on the poor. Wealthier people living in North America have a per capita carbon footprint that is 25 percent higher than those of lower-income residents, with some affluent suburbs producing emissions 15 times higher than nearby neighborhoods. These carbon emissions contribute to global warming, and the subsequent health consequences are felt farxiga class action lawsuit far beyond the neighborhood that produces them. Older adults, children, low-income communities and communities of color are less resilient on average to the health impacts of climate change.

The climate crisis is thus leading to a disproportionate public health crisis—and worse, it is a threat multiplier. At a farxiga class action lawsuit time when many Americans are economically challenged, continued heat waves and the higher energy bills they trigger threaten access to water and energy security. The economic benefits of a low-carbon economy are clear. Estimates suggest that without climate investments, the United States will face economic damage from climate change equivalent to 1–3 percent of GDP per year by 2100.

The majority of Americans farxiga class action lawsuit think global warming is happening. The climate crisis has unfairly been labeled as political, when in fact, people recognize that something needs to be done about it. Even for those who are seemingly unaffected, there is increasing global recognition that the safeguards of living in a protected community and affording expert medical care will eventually fail if global warming continues unchecked. Unfortunately, there will be no vaccine farxiga class action lawsuit in six months or a year for the climate crisis.

The only treatment is collective climate action in the present. Climate action is required of our elected leaders, and we must mandate it of ourselves. It can be as simple as educating family and friends, while making sustainable farxiga class action lawsuit shopping and traveling choices. It includes eating less meat, unplugging electronics and raising a voice against the fossil fuel industry.

With a rise in demand for absentee ballots for the election this November, it is crucial farxiga class action lawsuit to request mail-in ballots right away to make sure our voices are heard. The United States is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and we must vote for green policy. Legislative action and policy change work, as evidenced by the Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments, which are projected to save 230,000 lives in 2020. The climate crisis is a public health issue, and we must start healing the planet in order farxiga class action lawsuit to heal each other.

Fighting against the climate crisis is one of the most patriotic things we can do right now. It will protect our health and the health of our neighbors across the country and the globe, and will allow all of us to live on this planet, the only home we have.The items below are highlights from the free newsletter, “Smart, useful, science stuff about COVID-19.” To receive newsletter issues daily in your inbox, sign up here. Please consider a monthly contribution to farxiga class action lawsuit support this newsletter. Women’s immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is stronger than men’s immune response to the virus, according to a study published 8/26/20 in Nature and covered the same day by Apoorva Mandavilli at The New York Times.

The finding could explain why men “are twice as likely to become severely sick and to die [from COVID-19] as women of the same age,” Mandavilli writes. The study also suggests that older men might need multiple shots of a coronavirus vaccine compared perhaps with young women, who might farxiga class action lawsuit need just one shot, according to an immunologist quoted in the story. He's at the Heinrich Pette Institute and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. The study leader, a Yale University immunologist, is quoted in the story as saying, “Women who are older — even very old, like 90 years — the women are still making pretty good, decent immune response” to SARS-CoV-2.

The U.S farxiga class action lawsuit. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 8/26/20 gave emergency-use authorization to Abbott Laboratories' $5, portable nasal-swab SARS-CoV-2 test that returns results in 15 minutes, reports Sheila Kaplan at The New York Times (8/26/20). The test detects viral fragments called antigens. Such tests miss more infections than widely used, slower tests that rely on a technology farxiga class action lawsuit called polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

But the speed of antigen tests, three others of which previously received FDA emergency-use approval, could prove useful in relieving test backlogs. Abbott says its new antigen test will become available in September, the farxiga class action lawsuit story states. Autopsies of 11 people who died of COVID-19 revealed that their spleens and lymph nodes lacked sites called germinal centers where B cells (immune cells) gather to “mature and refine their antibody response to the virus,” writes Jon Cohen at Science (8/25/20). The researchers compared tissue from the people who died of COVID-19 with tissue from 6 people who died of other causes, the story states.

The finding, which confirms an earlier study’s farxiga class action lawsuit findings in a smaller group, could provide insights into the progression of severe cases of COVID-19, the story states. The studies “establish a profound lack of [antibody] responses in the deceased population of COVID-19 patients,” says a Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) researcher who co-authored the smaller study and is quoted in the story. The missing germinal centers in severe COVID-19 patients could be linked to the biochemical “cytokine storms” that often occur in the dangerous, second phase of the disease, the HUST researcher is quoted as saying. Meanwhile, a MGH, MIT and Harvard immunologist who is a co-author of the newer study, published earlier this month in the journal Cell, says it farxiga class action lawsuit won’t be difficult to stop SARS-CoV-2 with a vaccine.

He is quoted as saying, “This is a piece of cake.” The United States, UK, Japan, and the European Union nations all have pre-ordered in bulk doses of vaccines under development to protect against SARS-CoV-2, reports Ewen Callaway at Nature (8/24/20). Some of these candidate vaccines could be approved in late 2020 or early 2021 at the earliest, the story states. But only "1 billion doses farxiga class action lawsuit will be available by the fourth quarter of 2021,” according to a life-sciences market analytics firm, the story states. A different organization estimates 2 billion to 4 billion doses will be available by the end of 2021, the story states.

A chart near the top of the piece illustrates pre-order details by vaccine manufacturer, nation and number of doses. Meanwhile, an international effort to secure vaccine doses for people living in a total of 92 low- and middle-income, as well as some wealthier countries, is “far short of raising the roughly $18 billion that it estimates” will be needed to meet its target farxiga class action lawsuit number of doses, Callaway reports. Lower in the piece, a chart illustrates pre-orders made by several countries and regions worldwide. Callaway writes that “patents and intellectual property are not what’s standing in the way of fair distribution of COVID-19 vaccines…rather, equitable access and affordable prices require collaboration farxiga class action lawsuit between governments and vaccine makers,” according to the head of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative in New York City, which reportedly is co-developing a COVID-19 vaccine.

In an 8/22/20 essay for The Washington Post, Elizabeth Svoboda writes that many people in the U.S. Have become desensitized to the risks of SARS-CoV-2, which has led to some behavioral backsliding, especially in crowded places. €œThis habituation stems from a farxiga class action lawsuit principle well-known in psychological therapy,” Svoboda writes. €œThe more we’re exposed to a given threat, the less intimidating it seems.” Some researchers recommend a return to stricter distancing, outdoor masking and stay-at-home orders, the essay suggests.

But we also need authorities to “supply in-your-face reminders of those mandates, especially visual cues, so people won’t draw their own erroneous conclusions about what’s safe,” she writes. In any case, we should cultivate an awareness of the diminishing effectiveness of our “snap judgments about COVID-19’s dangers,” and make more careful decisions, a la Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman's “slow farxiga class action lawsuit thinking,” she advises. Ventilation discussions in public-health circles predate the current pandemic. Infection control theories born of the U.S.

Experience with the Spanish farxiga class action lawsuit flu pandemic of 1918-1919 inspired engineers of the early 20th century to design steam-heating systems for buildings that could be effective in cold weather even with apartment windows open, reports Patrick Sisson for Bloomberg CityLab. That’s right. Steam-heat radiators were designed to be used with the open windows, allowing fresh air to gush in, which “health officials thought (correctly)…would ward off airborne diseases,” Sisson writes. The piece farxiga class action lawsuit draws from a 1992 book “The Lost Art of Steam Heating,” by heating-systems researcher Dan Holohan.

Radiators were designed, according to Holohan the story states, in response to a New York City Board of Health order that windows should remain open for ventilation in the winter. €œAnybody who’s thrown their windows open in January, when their farxiga class action lawsuit apartment is stifling, is in an odd way, replicating what engineers hoped would happen a century ago,” Sisson writes (8/5/20). You might enjoy. €œJerry Seinfeld.

So You Think New York Is ‘Dead’ (It’s not.)” (8/24/20).In four farxiga class action lawsuit days of speeches lasting more than eight hours at the Republican National Convention, climate change was never mentioned as a threat to the country. That silence stands apart from the climate alarm bells that have been sounding since Donald Trump accepted his first nomination for president four years ago. Thousands of Americans have been killed in natural disasters such as hurricanes and wildfires during Trump’s first term in office. Each of those four years has been among the farxiga class action lawsuit world’s hottest on record.

Leaders of other nations have taken action as the United States ignores the issue. Even Wall Street has begun to take notice of how climate change could affect economic growth. None of that was apparent during farxiga class action lawsuit the convention. Instead, Republican speakers insisted that the real concern was the climate ideas presented by Democrats.

Many experts say that if climate change is left unanswered, it could cost trillions of dollars to the U.S. Economy. Republicans said the real costs would come from Democratic plans to restrain the use of fossil fuels. €œBiden has promised to abolish the production of American oil, coal, shale and natural gas—laying waste to the economies of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Colorado and New Mexico,” Trump said.

€œMillions of jobs will be lost, and energy prices will soar.” (Biden’s plan does not call for a fracking ban). Those sentiments play well with Trump’s core supporters, but they’re askew from what most voters believe, including younger Republicans, according to polls. They don’t reflect the events that many Americans are either experiencing or seeing online. Uncontrolled wildfires in California and the strongest hurricane to hit Louisiana in 160 years.

Even as an unrelinquishing pandemic has killed more than 180,000 people in the United States and kept millions of children across the country from returning to school, climate change remains on the minds of voters, polls show. Here are five climate themes that have advanced since Trump accepted his first nomination in 2016. Natural disasters More than 3,000 Americans have died in natural catastrophes during the past four years. Most of them were victims of Hurricane Maria in 2017.

The massive Category 5 storm killed an estimated 2,975 people in Puerto Rico and forced thousands to flee the U.S. Territory. The devastation continues to have ripple effects three years later. Tens of thousands of people still live under leaky blue tarps.

The island’s power supply, never reliable to begin with, has become far worse, and some parts of Puerto Rico were without power for a year. That was the same year that Hurricane Harvey dumped 60 inches of rain on parts of Houston, becoming the wettest cyclone on record. Tens of thousands of homes were damaged, and about 70 people were killed. Harvey caused more than $100 billion in damage, making it one of the costliest disasters to strike the United States.

Record wildfires have also burned across the West. The 2018 Camp Fire in California was the deadliest. It killed 85 people and destroyed more than 10,000 homes. It was fueled by drought, an outcome of climate change.

This week, California continued to battle the second- and third-largest wildfires in state history. Officials have connected the fires to climate change. €œAll but three of the Top 20 Largest #Wildfires have occurred since 2000, with 10 of these large and damaging wildfires occurring in the last decade,” the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection tweeted yesterday. €œAs fire weather continues to become more extreme, California is adjusting to fight these larger and more destructive wildfires.” Heat The Trump years have been some of the hottest since record-keeping began after the Civil War, according to NASA.

After a record-warm July, this year may break the all-time annual heat record set in 2016. That’s a likely outcome, said Gavin Schmidt, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. That’s notable because four years ago, the record warmth was fueled by El Niño, a band of warm water covering the tropical Pacific Ocean. That influence is absent this year, Schmidt said, and long-term trends point to rising heat.

€œWe know that the trend is moving up. On average, every decade is warmer than the last,” he said. €œThe changes we’re seeing now are so far outside what would be possible in an un-globally-warmed world.” Public opinion Polling shows that voter concern about climate change has been growing for years and that it has not diminished as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. Concern among some voters has spiked during Trump’s tenure.

Before the virus, polling showed climate change was the second-most important issue for Democratic primary voters, behind only health care. Now, responding to the virus and restoring the economy top the list. But the public still wants the federal government to address climate change, recent polling shows. More Americans than ever—about 25%—view climate change as “extremely personally important,” according to a poll released last week by Stanford University, Resources for the Future and ReconMR.

That number is twice as large as it was in 2006, said the poll, which surveyed 1,000 adults between May and August. It also found that 82% of respondents want the federal government to act on climate change. And three-quarters of those surveyed said they had personally experienced the effects of global warming. €œThe COVID-19 pandemic has offered a unique opportunity to learn how people feel about climate change when faced with a global crisis,” said Ray Kopp, vice president of research and policy engagement at Resources for the Future.

€œThe claim that we can’t do anything about climate change without crashing the economy, or that we need to focus only on the pandemic and not do anything on climate right now, simply doesn’t resonate with Americans,” he said. The U.S. (and everyone else) Since Trump pledged to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement in 2017, world leaders have pressed him to rejoin and to take the issue seriously. Among them are German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron.

Last year, Trump said Prince Charles spent 90 minutes talking to him about climate change, trying to convince him to take stronger action and to once again make the United States a world leader. In response, Trump said he wanted “good climate,” but his administration has continued to roll back environmental safeguards meant to reduce emissions. In December, Macron said other governments, including China, Russia and the European Union, would lead the world in reducing emissions. The yearslong process of withdrawing from the Paris Agreement won’t be done until November.

Yesterday, Biden tweeted that if he wins the election, he would rejoin the pact on the first day of his presidency. Climate hits Wall Street This week, it was announced that Exxon Mobil Corp. Would be dropped from the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock index. It’s a significant departure, as Exxon was the longest-tenured company on the Dow, having been listed for almost a century.

It’s also a reflection of how oil companies have taken a financial hit amid growing concerns about climate change and as a result of declining consumption due to the pandemic. At the same time, some solar and wind companies have grown bigger than their fossil fuel competitors. The same factors that have weakened fossil fuel companies, including more aggressive climate targets, helped drive clean energy technologies. On Wall Street, business interests are increasingly warning the Federal Reserve and other regulators that climate change could pose a significant risk to the economy.

Earlier this year, 40 investment firms and organizations that handle more than $1 trillion in assets urged Fed Chairman Jerome Powell to take action. They warned him that climate “threats have the potential to compound in ways we don’t yet understand, with disastrous impacts the likes of which we haven’t seen before.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net..

The wildfire season is what do you need to buy farxiga off to a roaring start http://www.posrcumlad.si/where-can-you-get-farxiga/. The hot summer is worsening drought and drying out vegetation—an unfortunately ideal environment for wildfires to rage. But that’s just what do you need to buy farxiga one consequence of global warming.

It’s also leading to flooding, torrential rainstorms and heat-related deaths. In fact, the climate crisis has led to a widespread public health crisis. And as an ear, nose and throat physician, what do you need to buy farxiga I see the effects more and more often.

I vividly remember a patient who came in late for her appointment during a July heat wave. When I walked in, she said, “I’m so sorry I’m late, I was up all night walking my grandbaby around the train station.” Without air conditioning at home, the child was sweating through her clothes in the heat of the night, putting her at risk for dehydration. July 2019 was the what do you need to buy farxiga hottest July on record.

September 2019 was the hottest on record. January 2020 was the hottest on record. May 2020 was the hottest what do you need to buy farxiga on record.

This is not a coincidence. It is a pattern. Carbon dioxide, an important greenhouse gas contributing to global what do you need to buy farxiga warming, has increased by 9 percent since 2005 and by 31 percent since 1950.

A U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on what do you need to buy farxiga Climate Change special report pointed out that the world has already warmed about one degree Celsius from pre-industrial levels. It stressed the urgency to act to limit warming to 1.5 degrees, and that a two-degree increase will lead to unprecedented extreme heat, water scarcity and food shortages around the globe.

Heat affects every part of our body. It can lead to what do you need to buy farxiga heat exhaustion, heat stroke, anxiety, impaired cognitive function and even premature death from heart and lung disease. Across the country, the health concerns of the climate crisis are increasingly being recognized, pushing thousands of medical providers—doctors, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, medical students—to become advocates for change.

In my own practice, I explain to patients how the climate crisis affects their health. For example, apart from contributing to what do you need to buy farxiga global warming, rising carbon dioxide levels increase the amount of pollen that plants produce as a consequence of higher rates of photosynthesis. This rise in pollen levels can lead to worsening allergy symptoms.

Another example is fine particulate matter (known as PM2.5) associated with air pollution, much of it linked to the burning of fossil fuels that help drive the warming. When we breathe in these particles, they travel down the airway and settle in the tiny air sacs called alveoli what do you need to buy farxiga of the lungs, causing inflammation and potentially worsening asthma symptoms. The explanations are simple, but the health risks are widespread and complex.

Ground-level ozone pollution, which is worse in hotter weather, can also harm people with asthma and other respiratory diseases. And that harm falls disproportionately on the what do you need to buy farxiga poor. Wealthier people living in North America have a per capita carbon footprint that is 25 percent higher than those of lower-income residents, with some affluent suburbs producing emissions 15 times higher than nearby neighborhoods.

These carbon emissions contribute to global warming, and the subsequent health consequences what do you need to buy farxiga are felt far beyond the neighborhood that produces them. Older adults, children, low-income communities and communities of color are less resilient on average to the health impacts of climate change. The climate crisis is thus leading to a disproportionate public health crisis—and worse, it is a threat multiplier.

At a time what do you need to buy farxiga when many Americans are economically challenged, continued heat waves and the higher energy bills they trigger threaten access to water and energy security. The economic benefits of a low-carbon economy are clear. Estimates suggest that without climate investments, the United States will face economic damage from climate change equivalent to 1–3 percent of GDP per year by 2100.

The majority what do you need to buy farxiga of Americans think global warming is happening. The climate crisis has unfairly been labeled as political, when in fact, people recognize that something needs to be done about it. Even for those who are seemingly unaffected, there is increasing global recognition that the safeguards of living in a protected community and affording expert medical care will eventually fail if global warming continues unchecked.

Unfortunately, there will what do you need to buy farxiga be no vaccine in six months or a year for the climate crisis. The only treatment is collective climate action in the present. Climate action is required of our elected leaders, and we must mandate it of ourselves.

It can be what do you need to buy farxiga as simple as educating family and friends, while making sustainable shopping and traveling choices. It includes eating less meat, unplugging electronics and raising a voice against the fossil fuel industry. With a rise in demand for absentee ballots for the election what do you need to buy farxiga this November, it is crucial to request mail-in ballots right away to make sure our voices are heard.

The United States is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and we must vote for green policy. Legislative action and policy change work, as evidenced by the Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments, which are projected to save 230,000 lives in 2020. The climate crisis is a public health issue, and we must start healing the planet in order to heal each other what do you need to buy farxiga.

Fighting against the climate crisis is one of the most patriotic things we can do right now. It will protect our health and the health of our neighbors across the country and the globe, and will allow all of us to live on this planet, the only home we have.The items below are highlights from the free newsletter, “Smart, useful, science stuff about COVID-19.” To receive newsletter issues daily in your inbox, sign up here. Please consider a monthly what do you need to buy farxiga contribution to support this newsletter.

Women’s immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is stronger than men’s immune response to the virus, according to a study published 8/26/20 in Nature and covered the same day by Apoorva Mandavilli at The New York Times. The finding could explain why men “are twice as likely to become severely sick and to die [from COVID-19] as women of the same age,” Mandavilli writes. The study also suggests that older men might need multiple shots of a coronavirus vaccine compared perhaps with young women, who might need just one shot, according to an immunologist quoted what do you need to buy farxiga in the story.

He's at the Heinrich Pette Institute and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. The study leader, a Yale University immunologist, is quoted in the story as saying, “Women who are older — even very old, like 90 years — the women are still making pretty good, decent immune response” to SARS-CoV-2. The U.S what do you need to buy farxiga.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 8/26/20 gave emergency-use authorization to Abbott Laboratories' $5, portable nasal-swab SARS-CoV-2 test that returns results in 15 minutes, reports Sheila Kaplan at The New York Times (8/26/20). The test detects viral fragments called antigens. Such tests miss more infections than widely used, slower tests that what do you need to buy farxiga rely on a technology called polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

But the speed of antigen tests, three others of which previously received FDA emergency-use approval, could prove useful in relieving test backlogs. Abbott says what do you need to buy farxiga its new antigen test will become available in September, the story states. Autopsies of 11 people who died of COVID-19 revealed that their spleens and lymph nodes lacked sites called germinal centers where B cells (immune cells) gather to “mature and refine their antibody response to the virus,” writes Jon Cohen at Science (8/25/20).

The researchers compared tissue from the people who died of COVID-19 with tissue from 6 people who died of other causes, the story states. The finding, which confirms an earlier study’s findings in a smaller group, could what do you need to buy farxiga provide insights into the progression of severe cases of COVID-19, the story states. The studies “establish a profound lack of [antibody] responses in the deceased population of COVID-19 patients,” says a Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) researcher who co-authored the smaller study and is quoted in the story.

The missing germinal centers in severe COVID-19 patients could be linked to the biochemical “cytokine storms” that often occur in the dangerous, second phase of the disease, the HUST researcher is quoted as saying. Meanwhile, a MGH, MIT and Harvard immunologist who is a co-author of the newer study, published earlier this month in the journal Cell, says what do you need to buy farxiga it won’t be difficult to stop SARS-CoV-2 with a vaccine. He is quoted as saying, “This is a piece of cake.” The United States, UK, Japan, and the European Union nations all have pre-ordered in bulk doses of vaccines under development to protect against SARS-CoV-2, reports Ewen Callaway at Nature (8/24/20).

Some of these candidate vaccines could be approved in late 2020 or early 2021 at the earliest, the story states. But only "1 billion doses will what do you need to buy farxiga be available by the fourth quarter of 2021,” according to a life-sciences market analytics firm, the story states. A different organization estimates 2 billion to 4 billion doses will be available by the end of 2021, the story states.

A chart near the top of the piece illustrates pre-order details by vaccine manufacturer, nation and number of doses. Meanwhile, an international effort to secure vaccine doses for what do you need to buy farxiga people living in a total of 92 low- and middle-income, as well as some wealthier countries, is “far short of raising the roughly $18 billion that it estimates” will be needed to meet its target number of doses, Callaway reports. Lower in the piece, a chart illustrates pre-orders made by several countries and regions worldwide.

Callaway writes that “patents and intellectual property are not what’s standing in the way of fair distribution of COVID-19 vaccines…rather, equitable access and affordable prices require collaboration between governments and vaccine makers,” according to the head of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative in New York City, what do you need to buy farxiga which reportedly is co-developing a COVID-19 vaccine. In an 8/22/20 essay for The Washington Post, Elizabeth Svoboda writes that many people in the U.S. Have become desensitized to the risks of SARS-CoV-2, which has led to some behavioral backsliding, especially in crowded places.

€œThis habituation stems from a principle well-known in psychological therapy,” Svoboda what do you need to buy farxiga writes. €œThe more we’re exposed to a given threat, the less intimidating it seems.” Some researchers recommend a return to stricter distancing, outdoor masking and stay-at-home orders, the essay suggests. But we also need authorities to “supply in-your-face reminders of those mandates, especially visual cues, so people won’t draw their own erroneous conclusions about what’s safe,” she writes.

In any case, we should cultivate an awareness of the diminishing effectiveness of our “snap judgments about COVID-19’s dangers,” and make more careful decisions, a la Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman's what do you need to buy farxiga farxiga and bladder cancer “slow thinking,” she advises. Ventilation discussions in public-health circles predate the current pandemic. Infection control theories born of the U.S.

Experience with the what do you need to buy farxiga Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-1919 inspired engineers of the early 20th century to design steam-heating systems for buildings that could be effective in cold weather even with apartment windows open, reports Patrick Sisson for Bloomberg CityLab. That’s right. Steam-heat radiators were designed to be used with the open windows, allowing fresh air to gush in, which “health officials thought (correctly)…would ward off airborne diseases,” Sisson writes.

The piece draws from a 1992 book “The Lost Art of Steam Heating,” by what do you need to buy farxiga heating-systems researcher Dan Holohan. Radiators were designed, according to Holohan the story states, in response to a New York City Board of Health order that windows should remain open for ventilation in the winter. €œAnybody who’s thrown their windows open in January, when their apartment is what do you need to buy farxiga stifling, is in an odd way, replicating what engineers hoped would happen a century ago,” Sisson writes (8/5/20).

You might enjoy. €œJerry Seinfeld. So You Think New York Is what do you need to buy farxiga ‘Dead’ (It’s not.)” (8/24/20).In four days of speeches lasting more than eight hours at the Republican National Convention, climate change was never mentioned as a threat to the country.

That silence stands apart from the climate alarm bells that have been sounding since Donald Trump accepted his first nomination for president four years ago. Thousands of Americans have been killed in natural disasters such as hurricanes and wildfires during Trump’s first term in office. Each of those four what do you need to buy farxiga years has been among the world’s hottest on record.

Leaders of other nations have taken action as the United States ignores the issue. Even Wall Street has begun to take notice of how climate change could affect economic growth. None of that was what do you need to buy farxiga apparent during the convention.

Instead, Republican speakers insisted that the real concern was the climate ideas presented by Democrats. Many experts say that if climate change is left unanswered, it could cost trillions of dollars to the U.S. Economy.

Republicans said the real costs would come from Democratic plans to restrain the use of fossil fuels. €œBiden has promised to abolish the production of American oil, coal, shale and natural gas—laying waste to the economies of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Colorado and New Mexico,” Trump said. €œMillions of jobs will be lost, and energy prices will soar.” (Biden’s plan does not call for a fracking ban).

Those sentiments play well with Trump’s core supporters, but they’re askew from what most voters believe, including younger Republicans, according to polls. They don’t reflect the events that many Americans are either experiencing or seeing online. Uncontrolled wildfires in California and the strongest hurricane to hit Louisiana in 160 years.

Even as an unrelinquishing pandemic has killed more than 180,000 people in the United States and kept millions of children across the country from returning to school, climate change remains on the minds of voters, polls show. Here are five climate themes that have advanced since Trump accepted his first nomination in 2016. Natural disasters More than 3,000 Americans have died in natural catastrophes during the past four years.

Most of them were victims of Hurricane Maria in 2017. The massive Category 5 storm killed an estimated 2,975 people in Puerto Rico and forced thousands to flee the U.S. Territory.

The devastation continues to have ripple effects three years later. Tens of thousands of people still live under leaky blue tarps. The island’s power supply, never reliable to begin with, has become far worse, and some parts of Puerto Rico were without power for a year.

That was the same year that Hurricane Harvey dumped 60 inches of rain on parts of Houston, becoming the wettest cyclone on record. Tens of thousands of homes were damaged, and about 70 people were killed. Harvey caused more than $100 billion in damage, making it one of the costliest disasters to strike the United States.

Record wildfires have also burned across the West. The 2018 Camp Fire in California was the deadliest. It killed 85 people and destroyed more than 10,000 homes.

It was fueled by drought, an outcome of climate change. This week, California continued to battle the second- and third-largest wildfires in state history. Officials have connected the fires to climate change.

€œAll but three of the Top 20 Largest #Wildfires have occurred since 2000, with 10 of these large and damaging wildfires occurring in the last decade,” the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection tweeted yesterday. €œAs fire weather continues to become more extreme, California is adjusting to fight these larger and more destructive wildfires.” Heat The Trump years have been some of the hottest since record-keeping began after the Civil War, according to NASA. After a record-warm July, this year may break the all-time annual heat record set in 2016.

That’s a likely outcome, said Gavin Schmidt, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. That’s notable because four years ago, the record warmth was fueled by El Niño, a band of warm water covering the tropical Pacific Ocean. That influence is absent this year, Schmidt said, and long-term trends point to rising heat.

€œWe know that the trend is moving up. On average, every decade is warmer than the last,” he said. €œThe changes we’re seeing now are so far outside what would be possible in an un-globally-warmed world.” Public opinion Polling shows that voter concern about climate change has been growing for years and that it has not diminished as a result of the coronavirus pandemic.

Concern among some voters has spiked during Trump’s tenure. Before the virus, polling showed climate change was the second-most important issue for Democratic primary voters, behind only health care. Now, responding to the virus and restoring the economy top the list.

But the public still wants the federal government to address climate change, recent polling shows. More Americans than ever—about 25%—view climate change as “extremely personally important,” according to a poll released last week by Stanford University, Resources for the Future and ReconMR. That number is twice as large as it was in 2006, said the poll, which surveyed 1,000 adults between May and August.

It also found that 82% of respondents want the federal government to act on climate change. And three-quarters of those surveyed said they had personally experienced the effects of global warming. €œThe COVID-19 pandemic has offered a unique opportunity to learn how people feel about climate change when faced with a global crisis,” said Ray Kopp, vice president of research and policy engagement at Resources for the Future.

€œThe claim that we can’t do anything about climate change without crashing the economy, or that we need to focus only on the pandemic and not do anything on climate right now, simply doesn’t resonate with Americans,” he said. The U.S. (and everyone else) Since Trump pledged to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement in 2017, world leaders have pressed him to rejoin and to take the issue seriously.

Among them are German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron. Last year, Trump said Prince Charles spent 90 minutes talking to him about climate change, trying to convince him to take stronger action and to once again make the United States a world leader. In response, Trump said he wanted “good climate,” but his administration has continued to roll back environmental safeguards meant to reduce emissions.

In December, Macron said other governments, including China, Russia and the European Union, would lead the world in reducing emissions. The yearslong process of withdrawing from the Paris Agreement won’t be done until November. Yesterday, Biden tweeted that if he wins the election, he would rejoin the pact on the first day of his presidency.

Climate hits Wall Street This week, it was announced that Exxon Mobil Corp. Would be dropped from the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock index. It’s a significant departure, as Exxon was the longest-tenured company on the Dow, having been listed for almost a century.

It’s also a reflection of how oil companies have taken a financial hit amid growing concerns about climate change and as a result of declining consumption due to the pandemic. At the same time, some solar and wind companies have grown bigger than their fossil fuel competitors. The same factors that have weakened fossil fuel companies, including more aggressive climate targets, helped drive clean energy technologies.

On Wall Street, business interests are increasingly warning the Federal Reserve and other regulators that climate change could pose a significant risk to the economy. Earlier this year, 40 investment firms and organizations that handle more than $1 trillion in assets urged Fed Chairman Jerome Powell to take action. They warned him that climate “threats have the potential to compound in ways we don’t yet understand, with disastrous impacts the likes of which we haven’t seen before.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News.

E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net..

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A potentially go to this web-site dicey phase of the pandemic is almost farxiga heart failure indication here. Flu season. The yearly farxiga heart failure indication influx of infections will soon coincide with SARS-CoV-2 in the Northern Hemisphere. Normally, healthcare practitioners that see patients with flu-like symptoms in late fall, winter and early spring assume the individual has influenza and treat them accordingly.

This year is different. “Going into respiratory virus season, we’re going to have a much harder time knowing what is the cause of a person’s symptoms,” says Lisa Maragakis, the senior director of infection farxiga heart failure indication prevention at the Johns Hopkins Health System.Even with the potential for uncertainty, there are still some practices that physicians recommend everyone follows as the double-whammy draws near — especially if you start to develop symptoms.Take PrecautionsFor starters, get your flu shot, says Maragakis. These vaccines aren’t perfect — according to the CDC, each yearly flu vaccine bounces between about 20 and 60 percent efficacy. Even though the injections don’t guarantee protection for farxiga heart failure indication everyone, they will work for some and can help rule out the possibility that any sniffles or body aches you develop stem from the flu.Speaking of those all-too-familiar aches and pains.

If you develop any respiratory symptoms, a fever, headaches or gastrointestinal issues that are out of the ordinary, isolate yourself. Stay home from work, skip social gatherings, and if there are any high-risk people in your home — individuals with diabetes, for example — keep to yourself if possible, says Sankar Swaminathan, chief of the infectious diseases division at University of Utah Health.“It would be hard for me, with most people, to get at whether they have the flu or COVID-19 because the symptoms overlap to such a degree,” he adds. For the most part, only a test can parse whether or not you have the farxiga heart failure indication flu, a cold or COVID-19. So until you’re able to talk to a medical professional or get results back from the lab, it’s best to take precautions and behave as if you have a COVID-19 diagnosis.

Remember that symptoms that look like a cold might farxiga heart failure indication actually be COVID-19 related. Colds will still be circulating among people during the fall and winter, and already Maragakis has heard from patients who chalked their runny nose and sore throat up as a typical cold. To combat those kinds of assumptions, “we’re asking people to have a high index of suspicion,” she says.Since the best way to diagnose someone is to examine which (if any) virus is living in their body, SARS-CoV-2 testing needs to be widespread, accessible and fast. Right now, however, a majority of states fall short of daily testing farxiga heart failure indication goals.

Recent surveys suggest that about 63 percent of people tested wait longer than one http://www.posrcumlad.si/buy-farxiga-online-no-prescription/ to two days for results, even though that is the ideal turnaround window for contact tracing. The shortfall farxiga heart failure indication may stem from national coordination issues. "As far as I have seen, it's not a lack of willingness to provide more tests — it comes down to ability," says Maragakis. Faltering supply chains mean the essential tools needed to test and test fast are in short supply.

"In my opinion, we need a much more farxiga heart failure indication coordinated national response to testing in order to solve those problems." What A Test Can DoSARS-CoV-2 tests do more than deliver peace of mind if, say, you feel congested and learn that it’s a regular cold. The results inform public health officials about the spread and containment of COVID-19 and help determine what kind of care you get.For example, many people getting a SARS-CoV-2 test will also get an influenza test (possibly with a new two-in-one technology). If someone has the regular flu, there are approved medications to fight off the infection they farxiga heart failure indication can take. In past flu seasons, healthcare practitioners administered influenza tests but often treated the individual as if they had the infection before getting results, Swaminathan says.

The odds of their illness being the flu are high enough to make that a reasonable choice. With much farxiga heart failure indication more uncertainty this year about what someone might have and what treatments could help them, the prescribe-before-results habit will likely be much less common. The prospects of not knowing what kind of illness you might have, or waiting a long time for official lab results, might sound gloomy. But there is a bright farxiga heart failure indication side.

It's possible that our COVID-19 mitigation tactics, like wearing masks, social distancing and avoiding large gatherings, could reduce influenza spread as well. This scenario likely played out in the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year. That half of the farxiga heart failure indication globe sees an influenza season during the Northern Hemisphere's spring and summer, and many countries reported very low non-COVID diagnoses. To keep influenza and COVID-19 cases low — and to keep you from playing the symptomatic guessing game with yourself — stick with those preventative health measures for the foreseeable future.

"It’s not going to last forever," says Swaminathan, "but we have to be patient and we have to be vigilant.".

A potentially http://www.posrcumlad.si/buy-farxiga-online-no-prescription/ dicey phase of the pandemic is almost what do you need to buy farxiga here. Flu season. The yearly influx of infections will soon coincide with SARS-CoV-2 in the what do you need to buy farxiga Northern Hemisphere. Normally, healthcare practitioners that see patients with flu-like symptoms in late fall, winter and early spring assume the individual has influenza and treat them accordingly. This year is different.

“Going into respiratory virus season, we’re going to have a much harder time knowing what is the what do you need to buy farxiga cause of a person’s symptoms,” says Lisa Maragakis, the senior director of infection prevention at the Johns Hopkins Health System.Even with the potential for uncertainty, there are still some practices that physicians recommend everyone follows as the double-whammy draws near — especially if you start to develop symptoms.Take PrecautionsFor starters, get your flu shot, says Maragakis. These vaccines aren’t perfect — according to the CDC, each yearly flu vaccine bounces between about 20 and 60 percent efficacy. Even though the injections don’t guarantee protection for everyone, they will work for some and can help rule out the possibility that any sniffles or body aches you what do you need to buy farxiga develop stem from the flu.Speaking of those all-too-familiar aches and pains. If you develop any respiratory symptoms, a fever, headaches or gastrointestinal issues that are out of the ordinary, isolate yourself. Stay home from work, skip social gatherings, and if there are any high-risk people in your home — individuals with diabetes, for example — keep to yourself if possible, says Sankar Swaminathan, chief of the infectious diseases division at University of Utah Health.“It would be hard for me, with most people, to get at whether they have the flu or COVID-19 because the symptoms overlap to such a degree,” he adds.

For the most part, only a test can parse whether or not you have the what do you need to buy farxiga flu, a cold or COVID-19. So until you’re able to talk to a medical professional or get results back from the lab, it’s best to take precautions and behave as if you have a COVID-19 diagnosis. Remember that symptoms that look like a what do you need to buy farxiga cold might actually be COVID-19 related. Colds will still be circulating among people during the fall and winter, and already Maragakis has heard from patients who chalked their runny nose and sore throat up as a typical cold. To combat those kinds of assumptions, “we’re asking people to have a high index of suspicion,” she says.Since the best way to diagnose someone is to examine which (if any) virus is living in their body, SARS-CoV-2 testing needs to be widespread, accessible and fast.

Right now, however, a majority of states what do you need to buy farxiga fall short of daily testing goals. Recent surveys suggest that about 63 percent of people tested wait longer than one to two days for results, even though that is the ideal turnaround top article window for contact tracing. The shortfall may stem from national coordination issues what do you need to buy farxiga. "As far as I have seen, it's not a lack of willingness to provide more tests — it comes down to ability," says Maragakis. Faltering supply chains mean the essential tools needed to test and test fast are in short supply.

"In my opinion, we need a much more coordinated national response what do you need to buy farxiga to testing in order to solve those problems." What A Test Can DoSARS-CoV-2 tests do more than deliver peace of mind if, say, you feel congested and learn that it’s a regular cold. The results inform public health officials about the spread and containment of COVID-19 and help determine what kind of care you get.For example, many people getting a SARS-CoV-2 test will also get an influenza test (possibly with a new two-in-one technology). If someone has the regular flu, there are approved what do you need to buy farxiga medications to fight off the infection they can take. In past flu seasons, healthcare practitioners administered influenza tests but often treated the individual as if they had the infection before getting results, Swaminathan says. The odds of their illness being the flu are high enough to make that a reasonable choice.

With much more uncertainty this year about what someone might have and what treatments could help them, the prescribe-before-results what do you need to buy farxiga habit will likely be much less common. The prospects of not knowing what kind of illness you might have, or waiting a long time for official lab results, might sound gloomy. But there what do you need to buy farxiga is a bright side. It's possible that our COVID-19 mitigation tactics, like wearing masks, social distancing and avoiding large gatherings, could reduce influenza spread as well. This scenario likely played out in the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

That half of the globe sees an influenza season during the Northern Hemisphere's spring and summer, and many countries reported what do you need to buy farxiga very low non-COVID diagnoses. To keep influenza and COVID-19 cases low — and to keep you from playing the symptomatic guessing game with yourself — stick with those preventative health measures for the foreseeable future. "It’s not going to last forever," says Swaminathan, "but we have to be patient and we have to be vigilant.".

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A fourth wave of the forxiga and farxiga opioid epidemic is coming, a national expert on drug use and policy said who can buy farxiga during a virtual panel discussion this week hosted by the Berkshire County, Massachusetts, District Attorney’s Office and the Berkshire Opioid Addiction Prevention Collaborative.Dr. Daniel Ciccarone, a professor of family and community medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine, said the next wave in the country’s opioid health emergency will focus on stimulants like methamphetamine and cocaine, and drug who can buy farxiga combinations where stimulants are used in conjunction with opioids.“The use of methamphetamines is back and it’s back big time,” said Ciccarone, whose most recent research has focused on heroin use.Previously, officials had said there were three waves of the opioid epidemic – the first being prescription pills, the second being heroin, and the third being synthetic drugs, like fentanyl.Now, Ciccarone said, what federal law enforcement and medical experts are seeing is an increase in the use of stimulants, especially methamphetamines.The increase in deaths due to stimulants may be attributed to a number of causes. The increase in supply, both imported and domestically produced, as well as the increase of the drugs’ potency.“Meth’s purity and potency has gone up to historical levels,” he said.

€œAs of 2018, we’ve reached unseen heights of 97 percent who can buy farxiga potency and 97 percent purity. In a prohibitionist world, we should not be seeing such high quality. This is almost pharmaceutical quality.”Additionally, law enforcement and public health experts like Ciccarone are seeing an who can buy farxiga increase in the co-use of stimulants with opioids, he said.

Speedballs, cocaine mixed with heroin, and goofballs, methamphetamines used with heroin or fentanyl, are becoming more common from the Midwest into Appalachia and up through New England, he said.Federal law enforcement officials are recommending local communities prepare for the oncoming rise in illegal drugs coming into their communities.“Some people will use them both at the same time, but some may use them in some combination regularly,” he said. €œThey may use meth in the morning to go to work, and use heroin at who can buy farxiga night to come down.”The co-use, he said, was an organic response to the fentanyl overdose epidemic.“Some of the things that we heard … is that meth is popularly construed as helping to decrease heroin and fentanyl use. Helping with heroin withdraw symptoms and helping with heroin overdoses,” he said.

€œWe debated this for many years that who can buy farxiga people were using stimulants to reverse overdoses – we’re hearing it again.”“Supply is up, purity is up, price is down,” he said. €œWe know from economics that when drug patterns go in that direction, use is going up.”Ciccarone said that there should not be deaths because of stimulants, but that heroin/fentanyl is the deadly element in the equation.His recommendations to communities were not to panic, but to lower the stigma surrounding drug use in order to affect change. Additionally, he said, policies should focus who can buy farxiga on reduction.

supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction. But not focus on only one single drug.Additionally, he said that by who can buy farxiga addressing issues within communities and by healing communities socially, economically and spiritually, communities can begin to reduce demand.“We’ve got to fix the cracks in our society, because drugs fall into the cracks,” he said.Shutterstock U.S. Rep.

Annie Kuster (D-NH) recently who can buy farxiga held two virtual roundtables addressing how COVID-19 has affected New Hampshire’s healthcare industry.“The health and economic crisis caused by COVID-19 has created significant challenges for Granite State healthcare, mental health, and substance use treatment providers — at the same time, we are seeing increases in substance abuse and mental illness across New Hampshire,” Kuster said. €œFrom the transition to telehealth care and who can buy farxiga cancellations of elective procedures to a lack of personal protective equipment and increasing health needs of our communities – providers have overcome a multitude of obstacles due to COVID-19 in recent months. I was glad to hear from these hard-working Granite Staters, whose insights will continue to guide my work in Congress as we respond to this pandemic.

I’m committed to ensuring that communities across New Hampshire can safely access the care and treatment they deserve.”The first roundtable addressed substance-use disorder (SUD) and mental health.The second virtual roundtable was an opportunity for health care providers who can buy farxiga to speak about their workplace challenges during the pandemic. Kuster is the founder and co-chairwoman of the Bipartisan Opioid Task Force, which held a virtual discussion in June on the opioid crisis and the pandemic.Shutterstock Opioid prescription rates for outpatient knee surgery vary nationwide, according to a study recently published in BMJ Open. €œWe found massive levels of variation in the proportion of patients who are prescribed opioids between states, even after adjusting for nuances of the procedure and who can buy farxiga differences in patient characteristics,” said Dr.

M. Kit Delgado, the study’s senior author and an assistant http://www.posrcumlad.si/buy-farxiga-online-no-prescription/ professor of Emergency Medicine and Epidemiology in the Perelman School of Medicine at the who can buy farxiga University of Pennsylvania. €œWe’ve also seen that the average number of pills prescribed was extremely high for outpatient procedures of this type, particularly for patients who had not been taking opioids prior to surgery.”Researchers examined insurance claims for nearly 100,000 patients who had arthroscopic knee surgery between 2015 and 2019 and had not used any opioid prescriptions in the six months before the surgery.Within three days of a procedure, 72 percent of patients filled an opioid prescription.

High prescription rates were found in the Midwest and the Rocky Mountain who can buy farxiga regions. The coasts had lower rates.Nationwide, the average prescription strength was equivalent to 250 milligrams of morphine over five days. This is the who can buy farxiga threshold for increased risk of opioid overdose death, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Shutterstock U.S.

Secretary of Labor Eugene Scalia awarded nearly $20 million to four states significantly impacted by the opioid crisis, the Department of Labor announced Thursday. The Florida Department of Economic Opportunity, the Maryland Department of Labor, the Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, and the Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development were awarded the money as part who can buy farxiga of the DOL’s “Support to Communities. Fostering Opioid Recovery through Workforce Development” created after the passage of the SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act of 2018.

The money will be used to retrain workers who can buy farxiga in areas with high rates of substance use disorders. At a who can buy farxiga press conference in Piketon, Ohio, Scalia said the DOL had awarded Ohio’s Department of Job and Family Services $5 million to help communities in southern Ohio combat the opioid crisis in that area. €œToday’s funding represents this Administration’s continued commitment to serving those most in need,” said Assistant Secretary for Employment and Training John Pallasch.

€œThe U.S who can buy farxiga. Department of Labor is taking a strong stand to support individuals and communities impacted by the crisis.”Grantees will use the funds to collaborate with community partners, such as employers, local workforce development boards, treatment and recovery centers, law enforcement officials, faith-based community organizations, and others, to address the economic effects of substance misuse, opioid use, addiction, and overdose.Shutterstock CVS Health has completed the installation of time-delayed safe technology at all 446 Massachusetts locations as part of its initiatives aimed at reducing the misuse and diversion of prescription medications in Massachusetts, the company announced Thursday. The safes are intended to prevent robberies of controlled substance medications, such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, by electronically delaying the time it takes for pharmacy employees to who can buy farxiga open the safe where those drugs are stored.The company also announced that it had added 50 new medication disposal units in select stores throughout Massachusetts.

Those units join 106 secure disposal units previously installed at CVS locations across the state and another 43 units previously donated to Massachusetts law enforcement agencies. The company plans to install another six who can buy farxiga units in stores by the year’s end. €œWhile our nation and our company focus on COVID-19 treatment, testing, and other measures to prevent community transmission of the virus, the misuse of prescription drugs remains an ongoing challenge in Massachusetts and elsewhere that warrants our continued attention,” said John Hering, Region Director for CVS Health.

€œThese steps to reduce the theft and who can buy farxiga diversion of opioid medications bring added security to our stores and more disposal options for our communities.”In 2015, CVS implemented time-delayed safe technology in CVS pharmacies across Indianapolis in response to the high volume of pharmacy robberies in that city. The company saw a 70 percent decline in pharmacy robberies in stores where the time-delayed safes were installed. Since then, the company has installed 4,760 time-delayed safes in 15 states and the District of Columbia and has seen a 50 who can buy farxiga percent decline in pharmacy robberies in those areas.

The company said it would add an additional 1,000 in-store medication disposal units to the 2,500 units it currently has in CVS pharmacies nationwide. The units allow customers to drop unused prescriptions who can buy farxiga into a safe place for their disposal to prevent those drugs from being misused. CVS stores that do not offer medication disposal units offer all customers filling opioid prescriptions for the first time with DisposeRX packets that effectively and efficiently breakdown unused drugs into a biodegradable gel for safe disposal in the trash at home..

A fourth wave of the opioid epidemic is coming, a national expert on drug use and policy said during a virtual panel what do you need to buy farxiga discussion this week hosted by the Berkshire County, Massachusetts, District Attorney’s Office and the Berkshire Opioid Addiction Prevention Collaborative.Dr. Daniel Ciccarone, a professor of family and community medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine, said the next wave in the country’s opioid health emergency will focus on stimulants like methamphetamine and cocaine, and drug combinations where stimulants are used in conjunction with opioids.“The use of methamphetamines is back and it’s back big time,” said Ciccarone, whose most recent research has focused on heroin use.Previously, officials had said there were three waves of the opioid epidemic – the first being prescription pills, the second being heroin, and the third being synthetic drugs, like fentanyl.Now, Ciccarone said, what federal law enforcement and medical experts are what do you need to buy farxiga seeing is an increase in the use of stimulants, especially methamphetamines.The increase in deaths due to stimulants may be attributed to a number of causes. The increase in supply, both imported and domestically produced, as well as the increase of the drugs’ potency.“Meth’s purity and potency has gone up to historical levels,” he said. €œAs of 2018, we’ve reached unseen heights of 97 percent potency and 97 percent purity what do you need to buy farxiga.

In a prohibitionist world, we should not be seeing such high quality. This is almost pharmaceutical quality.”Additionally, law enforcement and public health experts what do you need to buy farxiga like Ciccarone are seeing an increase in the co-use of stimulants with opioids, he said. Speedballs, cocaine mixed with heroin, and goofballs, methamphetamines used with heroin or fentanyl, are becoming more common from the Midwest into Appalachia and up through New England, he said.Federal law enforcement officials are recommending local communities prepare for the oncoming rise in illegal drugs coming into their communities.“Some people will use them both at the same time, but some may use them in some combination regularly,” he said. €œThey may use meth in the morning to go to work, and use heroin at night to come down.”The co-use, he said, was an organic response to the fentanyl overdose epidemic.“Some of the things that we heard … is that meth is what do you need to buy farxiga popularly construed as helping to decrease heroin and fentanyl use.

Helping with heroin withdraw symptoms and helping with heroin overdoses,” he said. €œWe debated this for many years that people were using stimulants to reverse overdoses – we’re hearing it again.”“Supply is up, purity is what do you need to buy farxiga up, price is down,” he said. €œWe know from economics that when drug patterns go in that direction, use is going up.”Ciccarone said that there should not be deaths because of stimulants, but that heroin/fentanyl is the deadly element in the equation.His recommendations to communities were not to panic, but to lower the stigma surrounding drug use in order to affect change. Additionally, he what do you need to buy farxiga said, policies should focus on reduction.

supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction. But not focus on only one single drug.Additionally, he said that by addressing issues within communities what do you need to buy farxiga and by healing communities socially, economically and spiritually, communities can begin to reduce demand.“We’ve got to fix the cracks in our society, because drugs fall into the cracks,” he said.Shutterstock U.S. Rep. Annie Kuster (D-NH) recently held two virtual roundtables addressing how COVID-19 has affected New Hampshire’s what do you need to buy farxiga healthcare industry.“The health and economic crisis caused by COVID-19 has created significant challenges for Granite State healthcare, mental health, and substance use treatment providers — at the same time, we are seeing increases in substance abuse and mental illness across New Hampshire,” Kuster said.

€œFrom the transition to telehealth care and cancellations of elective procedures to a lack of personal protective equipment and increasing health needs of our communities – providers have overcome a multitude what do you need to buy farxiga of obstacles due to COVID-19 in recent months. I was glad to hear from these hard-working Granite Staters, whose insights will continue to guide my work in Congress as we respond to this pandemic. I’m committed to ensuring that communities across New Hampshire can safely access the care and treatment they deserve.”The first roundtable addressed substance-use disorder (SUD) and mental health.The second virtual roundtable was an opportunity for health what do you need to buy farxiga care providers to speak about their workplace challenges during the pandemic. Kuster is the founder and co-chairwoman of the Bipartisan Opioid Task Force, which held a virtual discussion in June on the opioid crisis and the pandemic.Shutterstock Opioid prescription rates for outpatient knee surgery vary nationwide, according to a study recently published in BMJ Open.

€œWe found massive levels of variation what do you need to buy farxiga in the proportion of patients who are prescribed opioids between states, even after adjusting for nuances of the procedure and differences in patient characteristics,” said Dr. M. Kit Delgado, the study’s senior author and an assistant professor of what do you need to buy farxiga Emergency Medicine and Epidemiology in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. €œWe’ve also seen that the average number of pills prescribed was extremely high for outpatient procedures of this type, particularly for patients who had not been taking opioids prior to surgery.”Researchers examined insurance claims for nearly 100,000 patients who had arthroscopic knee surgery between 2015 and 2019 and had not used any opioid prescriptions in the six months before the surgery.Within three days of a procedure, 72 percent of patients filled an opioid prescription.

High prescription rates what do you need to buy farxiga were found in the Midwest and the Rocky Mountain regions. The coasts had lower rates.Nationwide, the average prescription strength was equivalent to 250 milligrams of morphine over five days. This is what do you need to buy farxiga the threshold for increased risk of opioid overdose death, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Shutterstock U.S. Secretary of Labor Eugene Scalia awarded nearly $20 million to four states significantly impacted by the opioid crisis, the Department of Labor announced Thursday.

The Florida Department of Economic Opportunity, the Maryland Department of Labor, the Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, and the Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development were awarded the money what do you need to buy farxiga as part of the DOL’s “Support to Communities. Fostering Opioid Recovery through Workforce Development” created after the passage of the SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act of 2018. The money will be used to retrain workers what do you need to buy farxiga in areas with high rates of substance use disorders. At a press conference in Piketon, Ohio, Scalia said the DOL had awarded Ohio’s Department of Job and Family Services $5 million to help communities in southern Ohio what do you need to buy farxiga combat the opioid crisis in that area.

€œToday’s funding represents this Administration’s continued commitment to serving those most in need,” said Assistant Secretary for Employment and Training John Pallasch. €œThe U.S what do you need to buy farxiga. Department of Labor is taking a strong stand to support individuals and communities impacted by the crisis.”Grantees will use the funds to collaborate with community partners, such as employers, local workforce development boards, treatment and recovery centers, law enforcement officials, faith-based community organizations, and others, to address the economic effects of substance misuse, opioid use, addiction, and overdose.Shutterstock CVS Health has completed the installation of time-delayed safe technology at all 446 Massachusetts locations as part of its initiatives aimed at reducing the misuse and diversion of prescription medications in Massachusetts, the company announced Thursday. The safes are intended to prevent robberies of controlled substance medications, such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, by electronically delaying the time it takes for pharmacy employees to open what do you need to buy farxiga the safe where those drugs are stored.The company also announced that it had added 50 new medication disposal units in select stores throughout Massachusetts.

Those units join 106 secure disposal units previously installed at CVS locations across the state and another 43 units previously donated to Massachusetts law enforcement agencies. The company what do you need to buy farxiga plans to install another six units in stores by the year’s end. €œWhile our nation and our company focus on COVID-19 treatment, testing, and other measures to prevent community transmission of the virus, the misuse of prescription drugs remains an ongoing challenge in Massachusetts and elsewhere that warrants our continued attention,” said John Hering, Region Director for CVS Health. €œThese steps to reduce the theft and diversion of opioid medications bring added security to our stores and more disposal options for our communities.”In 2015, CVS implemented time-delayed safe technology in CVS pharmacies across Indianapolis in response to the what do you need to buy farxiga high volume of pharmacy robberies in that city.

The company saw a 70 percent decline in pharmacy robberies in stores where the time-delayed safes were installed. Since then, the company has installed 4,760 time-delayed safes in 15 what do you need to buy farxiga states and the District of Columbia and has seen a 50 percent decline in pharmacy robberies in those areas. The company said it would add an additional 1,000 in-store medication disposal units to the 2,500 units it currently has in CVS pharmacies nationwide. The units allow customers to drop unused prescriptions into a safe place for their disposal to prevent what do you need to buy farxiga those drugs from being misused.

CVS stores that do not offer medication disposal units offer all customers filling opioid prescriptions for the first time with DisposeRX packets that effectively and efficiently breakdown unused drugs into a biodegradable gel for safe disposal in the trash at home..

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Unearthing those delightful Neanderthals populating your family tree was so much fun, but farxiga cost per pill http://www.posrcumlad.si/where-can-you-get-farxiga/ now you might be ready to move on to the next step of at-home genetic testing. Maybe you’re curious about what your DNA says about your cancer risk.You’re in good company. The at-home genetic testing market for health conditions is soaring, and the kits are more affordable farxiga cost per pill than ever. The process is as simple as making a few clicks on a website, entering your credit card number, mailing your tube full of spit, and watching for the results email.

That’s the easy part farxiga cost per pill. Using at-home genetic testing for health risk brings a different type of journey than discovering ancestry. But prepare yourself to collect answers you may not be ready to hear.It’s Homework TimeFirst, ask yourself why you’re testing — whether you’re curious about your health risks or are worried about your family history. Next, spend time on websites that offer direct-to-consumer cancer farxiga cost per pill genetic testing.

Decide whether you want answers about inherited risk for cancer only, or whether you’d like to hear about heart disease, Alzheimer’s, or how your body metabolizes medications. If you decide to buy farxiga cost per pill a kit, pay attention to how many risk genes each company includes. €œOf all of the genes associated with risk for cancer, some companies might test for one or two, or just test for a handful of mutations in those one or two genes, so that would not be a comprehensive test,” says Gillian Hooker, president of the National Association of Genetic Counselors.Results depend on which test kit you used. For instance, 23andMe spot-checks your DNA.

Any positive results would need to be confirmed farxiga cost per pill. Other companies such as Color, Invitae, and Perkin Elmer Genomics use next-generation sequencing for a deep dive into your genes. AncestryHealth recently teamed up farxiga cost per pill with Quest Diagnostics to offer such testing. If those results are positive, you can take preventive measures.

(Credit. Nevodka/Shutterstock)With at-home testing, the results come via email, rather than from farxiga cost per pill a genetic counselor or your doctor. Although some companies include genetic counseling with the package, if you’re the anxious type, consider chatting with a genetic counselor before you test. The counselor farxiga cost per pill can find places that cancer may be hiding in your family tree, and tailor testing to you (or, may not recommend testing at all), and help prepare you for the results.

Also know that genetic tests use databases tilted toward European ancestries, with fewer underrepresented populations and minority groups, and genetic counselors can help here, as well. Here’s where to find a genetic counselor. Just know that a bit of farxiga cost per pill worry is normal and helpful. €œIf your family history of cancer is strong, there’s a risk of not worrying enough,” says Hooker.

€œA little bit of worry may keep you moving forward to take action and reduce your farxiga cost per pill risk of cancer.” But worrying so much that you take no action — or not worrying enough — is risky because there are proactive steps you can take, says Hooker. Uh, Oh, It’s Positive First, take a breath. Only about 10 to 15 percent of most types of cancer are due to genetic mutations passed down through families. That leaves farxiga cost per pill a lot of room for environment, like whether we smoke or adhere to a healthy diet and exercise routine.

A positive result may send you down a path you weren’t expecting. But you can be proactive farxiga cost per pill. If you or any family members are found to be high risk, you’ll need to consult with a genetic counselor or a genetics-savvy health care professional. You may need to take measures such as extra screening, or even preventive surgery to remove your ovaries, breasts, or your colon.

€œI don’t want to make this sound simple or easy, farxiga cost per pill but there is significant evidence those [measures] reduce your risk of cancer,” says Hooker.Realize, too, that genetic testing for cancer or other health conditions is all about families. Your family members — right down to aunts, uncles, and first cousins — will need to know how your test turned out. The best way to handle your curiosity farxiga cost per pill about genetic testing is to tell at least your parents and siblings before you test, because results have implications for them, too, says Hooker.Genetic counselors can help organize follow-up care for you and your family. It’s what they do, and it’s critical.

€œIf you don’t coordinate care for the rest of your family, someone else may get diagnosed who might have been able to prevent the cancer, or detect it earlier if they had known the family had a harmful change in the genetic material,” says Suzanne Mahon, a genetic counselor and professor in internal medicine at Saint Louis University. €œThat’s a missed opportunity for people who need testing, and it happens all of the time.”What Negative MeansJust as you shouldn’t immediately assume the worst if you get farxiga cost per pill a positive result, don’t assume you’re automatically in the clear if your genetic test comes back negative. For example, breast cancer is common, and changes in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes aren’t your only risk factor. Two family farxiga cost per pill members can have the condition for different reasons.

Also, researchers haven’t identified all the genetic changes that cause heredity breast cancer, because some mutations are tucked away in parts of a gene that genetic tests don’t see, says Robert Nussbaum, a cancer geneticist and chief medical officer of Invitae. Bottom line. €œNo genetic test is 100 percent sensitive,” he says.Realize too, that negative family histories can be misleading farxiga cost per pill. €œIf your family history is rip-roaringly positive, that’s a strong piece of evidence,” says Nussbaum.

€œBut negative farxiga cost per pill doesn’t tell you very much. Families are small, and people lose contact.” The Future YouHaving answers to your genetic cancer risk helps your future and your family’s, too. Ten years ago, women who were positive for BRCA2 mutations had the option of preventive surgery to remove their ovaries and breasts. Today, a genetic counselor will talk to you about screening for farxiga cost per pill pancreatic cancer or melanoma and may also recommend more frequent screening for colon cancer, says Mahon.

By the way, you should give a thought to your privacy. GINA, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, can protect you farxiga cost per pill from employment discrimination, but you may want to buy life insurance before you test. Before you buy a kit, be sure to check out the company’s privacy policy as well as its terms and conditions notice, so you can find out what happens to your DNA sample once it’s analyzed. Finally, the best way to approach genetic testing for cancer or any other health decision is to prepare upfront, “Make sure that you are informed and that you have the resources around you to get informed,” Mahon says.Now that we’re several months into the pandemic — and all the life changes it has brought on — when’s the last time you got a good night of sleep?.

Maybe while farxiga cost per pill staring up at the ceiling on one of the particularly bad nights, you wondered if you have insomnia. Whether you do or don’t, persistent sleep troubles in your life are worth addressing. €œI think it’s a really important issue now, and farxiga cost per pill it's not only insomnia,” says Yue Leng, an epidemiologist at the University of California, San Francisco. €œIt's really all kinds of sleep problems as a result of what’s happening.”What Is Considered Insomnia?.

So much about life during the pandemic can set people up for sleep problems. Unemployment and working from home often upends schedules that get people in and out farxiga cost per pill of bed at dependable times. The flexibility to sleep later than you normally do or incorporate naps into your afternoons, Leng says, can disrupt a sleep-wake cycle that allows for quality sleep at night. Stress or worrying about the pandemic and its consequences could keep you up past your farxiga cost per pill bedtime.

Also, sleep problems like insomnia are linked to depression, Leng says. Anyone struggling with one of these issues often faces the other problem as well. It’s also possible that single events, like caring for a child in the middle of the night, might trigger a few days of disrupted sleep, says Allison Siebern, a sleep psychologist with the farxiga cost per pill Stanford Sleep Medicine Center. Trouble falling asleep and staying that way, or having a hard time focusing during the day, are some of the insomnia symptoms that everyone will experience at one point in their lives.

When the initial event is over and the sleep issues continue — farxiga cost per pill or as Siebern puts it, “when not sleeping takes on a life of its own” — someone is at risk of developing diagnosable insomnia. For health professionals to diagnose a patient with this particular sleep disorder, an individual has to have disrupted sleep for three nights a week over a minimum of three months, as well as dysfunction or stress in their daily lives from the lack of rest. Tips for Getting Quality Sleep Meeting the criteria for insomnia and receiving a diagnosis might give you access farxiga cost per pill to certain interventions. But you don’t have to watch the calendar and tally up your sleepless nights to start improving your nighttime rest, Leng says, and nor should you.

€œUsually we think that the sooner people start noticing the problem, they should get started dealing with it." Disrupted sleep is associated with a higher likelihood of Type II diabetes and heart disease, and there’s evidence that older insomnia patients are at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.Read more. The Importance farxiga cost per pill of Sleep for Your BodyThankfully, there are changes you can implement right away to try to get your normal, restful sleep back, Leng says. Avoiding too much alcohol or caffeine helps, as does participating in regular physical activity. Staying regimented about how you farxiga cost per pill use your bedroom can maintain restful sleep, too.

Reserve your time in bed only for sleep and sex, and maintain a routine of going to bed and getting up at the same time every day. Going to see a therapist to deal with your insomnia is an option as well. €œBy the time someone is reaching out to farxiga cost per pill a professional, they’ve probably been struggling for some time,” says Siebern. One intervention available is cognitive behavioral therapy designed specifically for insomnia — a kind of psychological treatment that helps patients change habits and thought processes interfering with sleep.A therapist might advise some of the lifestyle changes mentioned above, like a strict bedtime.

But a professional such as Siebern may also try to help people reframe farxiga cost per pill how they think about hitting the sack. Consistently sleeping poorly can build anxiety and frustration around bedtime, Siebern says. Our brains, which often push us to imagine the worst possible outcomes, might pull the same trick when we notice we are sleeping poorly. For example, someone might think, “If I don't get sleep tonight, then tomorrow will be bad and I’ll lose my farxiga cost per pill job," Siebern says.

Those types of anxious thoughts boost circuits in our brains that help our “fight or flight” responses kick in, and can raise the adrenaline level and heart rate — biological shifts that interfere with sleep.Sometimes, people are so frustrated by their poor rest that it’s too big of a challenge for them to fight on their own, Siebern says. Talking with a farxiga cost per pill therapist and learning coping strategies can break the cycle. When a patient, for example, finds themselves assuming they’ll get fired for falling asleep on the job the next day, “we can scale back and see how accurate that statement is, and reframe in a more accurate way that isn’t as activating,” Siebern says.As frustrating as it is to get stuck in a rut of constant bad sleep, it is fixable, Siebern says. €œThe nice thing about insomnia disorder is that it doesn't mean you always have it.” If someone starts to notice themselves slipping back into the exhausting cycle again later in life, hopefully they will remember the coping mechanisms and deploy them before they find themselves in the doctor’s office again.

Also, know that sleep supplements like melatonin farxiga cost per pill gummies might not be the hack to quality sleep that you're looking for. Leng says "melatonin won’t help" with many of the causes for poor sleep outlined above.As scientists race to produce a safe and effective vaccine for COVID-19, many experts are pondering how to administer such a vaccine — and whether it should be mandatory. The United States is no stranger to mandatory vaccination programs farxiga cost per pill and there’s plenty of evidence that they can work, but Daniel Salmon, director of the Institute of Vaccine Safety at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, fears attitudes towards public health measures have changed so rapidly in 2020 that such an approach for COVID-19 could backfire. €œI’m really worried about that,” he says.

€œLots of people don’t want to wear masks or accept that the virus is real.”Acceptance of a vaccine, mandatory or not, is similarly challenged. The share of Americans who say they’d either probably or definitely get vaccinated against COVID-19 has tumbled from 71 percent farxiga cost per pill in May to 51 percent in September, according to polling data from the Pew Research Center. This downward trend is more pronounced among Republican Party voters — a majority of whom say they would now shun such a vaccine — but the data showed a similar trend among Democratic Party voters, too. €œLook at the backlash right now, you can only imagine what it would be like with [mandatory] vaccines,” farxiga cost per pill says Sean O’Leary, an infectious disease specialist at the University of Colorado.

And yet, mandatory vaccination programs have existed in the U.S. Since the early 20th century, when all children were required to attend elementary school for the first time. States began to legislate farxiga cost per pill that access to public education be conditional upon vaccination for various diseases. These rules expanded in the 1970s and 1980s and studies have shown that the laws are clearly linked with lower rates of vaccine-preventable diseases.Evidence and ExemptionsHow strict mandatory rules need to be is slightly less clear.

In 2016, California became the first state in almost 30 years farxiga cost per pill to forbid non-medical exemptions to its mandatory vaccination programs. One study demonstrated that while the percentage of vaccinated students entering elementary school did rise, evidence also indicated that some parents tried to circumvent the system.“Medical exemptions rose, and they were mostly bogus,” O’Leary says. €œThere were also more parents in California who decided to home school.” California has since introduced further legislation to provide more oversight for medical exemptions, but it’s too early to judge the consequence. The majority of evidence farxiga cost per pill on the effectiveness of mandatory vaccinations comes from kids.

A COVID-19 vaccination, however, would need to focus on adults. And to be effective, any such program would require farxiga cost per pill different motivators to ensure compliance. Carrots Vs. Sticks“Mandatory vaccination isn’t forced vaccination,” says Katie Attwell, a political scientist at the University of Western Australia who specializes in mandatory vaccination policy.

Rather, Attwell notes, it’s more about putting a series of economic and social nudges in place so adherence is the default option.One of the most obvious farxiga cost per pill motivators would involve companies tying employment to vaccination. No shot, no job. As Draconian as that may sound, many farxiga cost per pill U.S. Hospitals already have mandatory flu vaccination policies in place for their employees, starting with the Virginia Mason Medical Center in Seattle, which implemented the first such policy in 2005.

A study has since found that it has consistently achieved vaccination rates of 98 percent. That figure is in stark contrast to hospitals in other countries where flu vaccines are only encouraged, not mandated — the European average for flu vaccinations among healthcare workers is less than 40 percent, according to another study.If tying vaccinations to employment is one way to target adults, then withdrawing public assistance from non-compliant people is another farxiga cost per pill. This has been trialed in Australia with the controversial “no jab, no pay” scheme, where parents see child benefit payments reduced if they don’t have their kids vaccinated. Hundreds of thousands of more children are reported to have been vaccinated as a result, but some studies suggest that anti-vaxxer parents are prepared to take the farxiga cost per pill financial hit.

If such a program were contemplated for the U.S., Salmon says there would serious ethical concerns. €œIf you want to withhold welfare, that might work,” he says. €œBut it will disproportionately affect the poor and that’s not very equitable.” Offering tax credits to farxiga cost per pill individuals who get vaccinated is a less punitive scheme, but Salmon questions how effective it would be. €œTax credits will provide an incentive, but I think it’s unlikely to convince someone who really doesn’t want to do it,” Salmon says.

Should It farxiga cost per pill Be Done?. While the evidence shows that mandatory vaccination policies can improve immunization rates under the right conditions, experts we spoke with view it as a last resort. €œIf you don’t need to make it mandatory, don’t,” says Salmon. Instead, it’s better to wait and see how many Americans will voluntarily offer their arms for a COVID-19 shot when the time comes and take farxiga cost per pill it from there.

€œI’m not going to pretend I can predict the future,” says O’Leary. €œBut I suspect fear of the disease and desire to get past the pandemic will push uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine.”Antibiotic resistance is farxiga cost per pill too often labeled a plague for tomorrow. It’s a pressing problem. At least, until a more pressing problem comes along to overshadow it.

But experts say we’re already seeing the consequences of prescribing antibiotics to patients who don’t farxiga cost per pill need them.The overuse of antibiotics is a key factor driving this antibiotic resistance. It has led to the emergence of superbugs, infections that are resistant to frontline antibiotic treatments. And when a bug becomes smart enough to outwit all available antibiotics, what started as a simple farxiga cost per pill infection can overtake the human body and kill.But in the midst of a pandemic for which there is no cure, doctors who may have thought twice about overprescribing antibiotics are now scrambling to save patients with few treatments at hand.For patients already seriously ill with COVID-19, the outcome can be devastating. Valerie Vaughn, a hospitalist and assistant professor at the University of Michigan Medical School, saw the unfortunate convergence of COVID-19 and antibiotic resistance firsthand in an intensive care unit earlier in the pandemic.Antibiotic Resistance Is HereVaughn says a patient was given antibiotics upon arriving at the hospital, likely because doctors weren’t sure if he had COVID-19 or a bacterial respiratory infection.

He spent several weeks in the hospital on a ventilator after a diagnosis of COVID-19 farxiga cost per pill and his condition worsened. But then, he contracted Clostridium difficile, a serious stomach bug common in hospital patients given antibiotics because it strips them of good bacteria in the gut needed to fight this pathogen. In the end, his C. Diff infection was resistant to antibiotic farxiga cost per pill treatments.

After a hard-fought battle, he died from multi-organ failure as a result of his C. Diff infection.“That sits with me,” says Vaughn farxiga cost per pill. €œOften, when we don’t have a cure, doctors tend to overprescribe. Sometimes you’re doing right by your patient by not doing something.”But this heartbreaking story is just one example of improper antibiotic use during the pandemic.

Vaughn and a team of researchers found that hospitals across Michigan were overprescribing antibiotics farxiga cost per pill to patients that didn’t have bacterial infections. Their study, which is set to appear in Clinical Infectious Diseases, found that between March and June, more than half of COVID-19 patients were prescribed antibiotics when they reached the hospital. However, just 3.5 percent of those patients had a farxiga cost per pill secondary bacterial infection. That means the vast majority of those patients only had COVID-19, a viral infection that doesn’t respond to antibiotics.One reason for the mix-up is clear.

At the time, hospitals often didn’t have enough COVID-19 tests for patients, and turnaround times on results could take days. Frontline medical professionals weren’t sure if farxiga cost per pill patients, arriving in an already precarious state, had COVID-19 or some other serious illness. Often, they relied on symptoms to diagnose and quickly begin treatment. Vaughn’s study found that once COVID-19 tests came back positive, most patients farxiga cost per pill stopped receiving antibiotic treatments altogether.Another culprit behind antibiotic overprescription is more subtle.

On the surface, Vaughn says, COVID-19 pneumonia looks a lot like bacterial pneumonia. But a closer inspection reveals that COVID-19 pneumonia patients have a dry cough with a low white blood cell count. By contrast, bacterial pneumonia patients usually have a productive cough and an elevated farxiga cost per pill white blood cell count. Still, doctors rushing to save a seriously sick patient may get the two pneumonias confused.

As the number of COVID-19 patients increases across the nation, busy doctors and hospital staff farxiga cost per pill are again in a rush to save lives. Some hospitals are handling it better than others, a statistic reflected in Vaughn’s research. She found that the rate of antibiotic use during COVID-19 varied widely and was often linked with the strength of a hospital's antibiotic stewardship program. In places that provided robust support systems, a quarter of COVID-19 patients received antibiotics, while the numbers were closer to 84 percent in farxiga cost per pill hospitals without them.

If hospitals have enough COVID-19 tests and a good understanding of bacterial infections, says Vaughn, antibiotic misuse could be tamped down even further.A Future Without Antibiotics?. Stephen Trent, a professor at the Center for Vaccines and Immunology at the University of Georgia, says farxiga cost per pill he is most concerned with the long-term viability of such overuse.“Bacteria grow and divide every 20 minutes and the more antibiotics you use the more resistance you end up with,” he says. This is a big problem, Trent says, because we’re running out of antibiotics. Plus, fewer and fewer pharmaceutical companies have both the wherewithal and ambition to develop new treatments.“I can name five drugs for erectile dysfunction but it seems none of the giant pharmaceutical [companies] are coming up with new antibiotics, a drug without which you can’t do most elective or emergency surgeries,” says Trent.

€œBy 2050, these superbugs will kill more people than cancer.”He points to the Pasteur Act, named for farxiga cost per pill French immunologist Louis Pasteur and recently introduced by Senators Michael Bennet and Todd Young, as a step in the right direction. The bill would develop a list of prioritized infections for which there is a critical medical need and provide companies with financial incentives to develop the drugs. As pharmaceutical companies farxiga cost per pill abandon antibiotic research in search of more profitable drugs, says Trent, it’s time for the government to step in and make this a priority. And with a pandemic raging, we’re learning that antibiotic resistance could get worse.

COVID-19 isn't going away anytime soon and pumping antibiotics into patients is a big problem in both the long and short term, he says. €œWe need to do something about it before the well dries up.”Delynn Willis had suffered from anxiety for years, but she’d always farxiga cost per pill been wary of treating it with drugs like Valium and Xanax. €œI didn’t want to start using anything that might lead to an addiction,” says Willis, a writer.While traveling through Southeast Asia, she stumbled on an alternative option. A drug called phenibut (pronounced fen-uh-byoot), available over the farxiga cost per pill counter as an anti-anxiety aid.

A friend told her it was safer than benzodiazepines like Xanax, so she decided to give it a try. Developed by Russian scientists more than a half-century ago, phenibut has recently exploded in popularity worldwide. In most countries, including the United States, it’s easily farxiga cost per pill available online without a prescription. Some users report that it quells their anxious symptoms, and some say it fosters clear thinking or even ecstasy-like effects.

But experts warn that the drug’s addictive potential resembles that of benzos — and farxiga cost per pill that phenibut purchased online may not be safe, since the online phenibut market is largely unregulated.A “New Tranquilizer”When Soviet Union researchers first synthesized phenibut in the 1960s, they noticed that it had strong sedative effects on cats and mice. They billed the drug as a “new tranquilizer” that relieved anxiety, improved sleep quality and lifted depression. Phenibut quickly came into widespread use and was even included in cosmonauts’ space kits to help them keep a cool head under pressure.Chemically, phenibut is similar to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which reduces the excitability of brain cells. That helps explain why people report feeling relaxed and happy when they farxiga cost per pill take it.

€œIt helped me deal with social anxiety without clouding my mind,” Willis says. In that sense, says University of Michigan farxiga cost per pill psychiatrist Edward Jouney, phenibut is actually a close cousin to drugs in the benzodiazepine family, which also affect the brain’s GABA receptors.Phenibut’s short-term effects are highly dependent on what dose you take. If you take a small amount, under 1 gram, you’re likely to feel a sense of calm and well-being. But at higher doses, your thinking typically blurs, your motor coordination gets loopy and you may lapse into a deep sleep.Flirting With DependencePhenibut’s similarity to benzos means that — despite the popular perception that the drug is safe — your brain can start to grow dependent on it over time, just as it would on Valium or Xanax.

€œThe drug has very potent farxiga cost per pill psychoactive properties,” Jouney says. €œThere’s evidence it can cause addiction.” Jouney began researching phenibut’s effects a few years ago, when patients at his clinic told him they’d started the drug and were finding it impossible to stop. The deeper he dug, the farxiga cost per pill more uneasy he became. Not only were users reporting growing dependence on phenibut, but cases of phenibut-related dissociation, psychosis, and respiratory depression were also cropping up around the country.

The CDC reports that poison center calls related to phenibut have been growing since 2015, with users experiencing symptoms like agitation, irregular heartbeat, confusion and even coma.A Pharmaceutical Wild WestJouney thinks it’s possible that, used under a doctor’s supervision, phenibut could one day prove a viable treatment for anxiety. The trouble is that clear evidence of the drug’s safety and effectiveness is lacking — and to add to the potential danger, many people are purchasing phenibut from unregulated online sellers.Phenibut is technically legal to possess in the United States, but that doesn’t mean it’s risk-free — or that you get what you pay farxiga cost per pill for when you order it. Jouney contacted several online phenibut suppliers to ask about their products and quality-control measures, but was rebuffed. €œI tried calling them and they wouldn’t give me any info.” In 2019, the FDA sent farxiga cost per pill warning letters to three companies for branding their phenibut products as “dietary supplements,” but most online phenibut sellers continue to ply their wares unchecked.

While Delynn Willis’s phenibut journey started off smoothly, she soon experienced the backlash many users describe. €œAfter I had been using it for a few weeks, I started to notice I needed higher and higher doses to get the same effect,” she says. She started weaning herself off of the drug farxiga cost per pill and got hit with a torrent of withdrawal symptoms. €œMy anxiety skyrocketed, my temper shortened and I experienced dizzy spells.”That kind of torturous backlash is why Jouney urges people to reject claims that phenibut is a safe Xanax alternative.

€œIt’s something that should be regulated,” he farxiga cost per pill says. €œIt can lead to physical dependence. This is not a benign substance.”.

Unearthing those delightful Neanderthals populating your family tree was so much fun, but now you might be what do you need to buy farxiga ready to move on to farxiga and bladder cancer the next step of at-home genetic testing. Maybe you’re curious about what your DNA says about your cancer risk.You’re in good company. The at-home genetic testing market for health conditions is soaring, and the what do you need to buy farxiga kits are more affordable than ever. The process is as simple as making a few clicks on a website, entering your credit card number, mailing your tube full of spit, and watching for the results email.

That’s the what do you need to buy farxiga easy part. Using at-home genetic testing for health risk brings a different type of journey than discovering ancestry. But prepare yourself to collect answers you may not be ready to hear.It’s Homework TimeFirst, ask yourself why you’re testing — whether you’re curious about your health risks or are worried about your family history. Next, spend time on websites that offer direct-to-consumer cancer what do you need to buy farxiga genetic testing.

Decide whether you want answers about inherited risk for cancer only, or whether you’d like to hear about heart disease, Alzheimer’s, or how your body metabolizes medications. If you decide to buy a kit, what do you need to buy farxiga pay attention to how many risk genes each company includes. €œOf all of the genes associated with risk for cancer, some companies might test for one or two, or just test for a handful of mutations in those one or two genes, so that would not be a comprehensive test,” says Gillian Hooker, president of the National Association of Genetic Counselors.Results depend on which test kit you used. For instance, 23andMe spot-checks your DNA.

Any positive results would what do you need to buy farxiga need to be confirmed. Other companies such as Color, Invitae, and Perkin Elmer Genomics use next-generation sequencing for a deep dive into your genes. AncestryHealth recently what do you need to buy farxiga teamed up with Quest Diagnostics to offer such testing. If those results are positive, you can take preventive measures.

(Credit. Nevodka/Shutterstock)With at-home testing, the results come via email, rather than from a genetic counselor what do you need to buy farxiga or your doctor. Although some companies include genetic counseling with the package, if you’re the anxious type, consider chatting with a genetic counselor before you test. The counselor can find places that cancer may be hiding in your what do you need to buy farxiga family tree, and tailor testing to you (or, may not recommend testing at all), and help prepare you for the results.

Also know that genetic tests use databases tilted toward European ancestries, with fewer underrepresented populations and minority groups, and genetic counselors can help here, as well. Here’s where to find a genetic counselor. Just know that a bit of worry is normal and helpful what do you need to buy farxiga. €œIf your family history of cancer is strong, there’s a risk of not worrying enough,” says Hooker.

€œA little bit of worry what do you need to buy farxiga may keep you moving forward to take action and reduce your risk of cancer.” But worrying so much that you take no action — or not worrying enough — is risky because there are proactive steps you can take, says Hooker. Uh, Oh, It’s Positive First, take a breath. Only about 10 to 15 percent of most types of cancer are due to genetic mutations passed down through families. That leaves a lot what do you need to buy farxiga of room for environment, like whether we smoke or adhere to a healthy diet and exercise routine.

A positive result may send you down a path you weren’t expecting. But you can what do you need to buy farxiga be proactive. If you or any family members are found to be high risk, you’ll need to consult with a genetic counselor or a genetics-savvy health care professional. You may need to take measures such as extra screening, or even preventive surgery to remove your ovaries, breasts, or your colon.

€œI don’t want to make this what do you need to buy farxiga sound simple or easy, but there is significant evidence those [measures] reduce your risk of cancer,” says Hooker.Realize, too, that genetic testing for cancer or other health conditions is all about families. Your family members — right down to aunts, uncles, and first cousins — will need to know how your test turned out. The best way to handle your curiosity about genetic testing is to tell at least your parents and what do you need to buy farxiga siblings before you test, because results have implications for them, too, says Hooker.Genetic counselors can help organize follow-up care for you and your family. It’s what they do, and it’s critical.

€œIf you don’t coordinate care for the rest of your family, someone else may get diagnosed who might have been able to prevent the cancer, or detect it earlier if they had known the family had a harmful change in the genetic material,” says Suzanne Mahon, a genetic counselor and professor in internal medicine at Saint Louis University. €œThat’s a missed opportunity for people who need testing, and it happens all of the time.”What Negative MeansJust as you shouldn’t immediately assume the worst if you get a positive result, don’t assume you’re automatically in the clear if your genetic what do you need to buy farxiga test comes back negative. For example, breast cancer is common, and changes in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes aren’t your only risk factor. Two family members can have the condition for different what do you need to buy farxiga reasons.

Also, researchers haven’t identified all the genetic changes that cause heredity breast cancer, because some mutations are tucked away in parts of a gene that genetic tests don’t see, says Robert Nussbaum, a cancer geneticist and chief medical officer of Invitae. Bottom line. €œNo genetic what do you need to buy farxiga test is 100 percent sensitive,” he says.Realize too, that negative family histories can be misleading. €œIf your family history is rip-roaringly positive, that’s a strong piece of evidence,” says Nussbaum.

€œBut negative doesn’t tell what do you need to buy farxiga you very much. Families are small, and people lose contact.” The Future YouHaving answers to your genetic cancer risk helps your future and your family’s, too. Ten years ago, women who were positive for BRCA2 mutations had the option of preventive surgery to remove their ovaries and breasts. Today, a genetic counselor will talk to you about screening for pancreatic cancer or melanoma and what do you need to buy farxiga may also recommend more frequent screening for colon cancer, says Mahon.

By the way, you should give a thought to your privacy. GINA, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, what do you need to buy farxiga can protect you from employment discrimination, but you may want to buy life insurance before you test. Before you buy a kit, be sure to check out the company’s privacy policy as well as its terms and conditions notice, so you can find out what happens to your DNA sample once it’s analyzed. Finally, the best way to approach genetic testing for cancer or any other health decision is to prepare upfront, “Make sure that you are informed and that you have the resources around you to get informed,” Mahon says.Now that we’re several months into the pandemic — and all the life changes it has brought on — when’s the last time you got a good night of sleep?.

Maybe while staring up at the ceiling on one of the particularly bad what do you need to buy farxiga nights, you wondered if you have insomnia. Whether you do or don’t, persistent sleep troubles in your life are worth addressing. €œI think it’s a really important issue now, and it's not only insomnia,” says Yue what do you need to buy farxiga Leng, an epidemiologist at the University of California, San Francisco. €œIt's really all kinds of sleep problems as a result of what’s happening.”What Is Considered Insomnia?.

So much about life during the pandemic can set people up for sleep problems. Unemployment and working from home often upends schedules that get people in and what do you need to buy farxiga out of bed at dependable times. The flexibility to sleep later than you normally do or incorporate naps into your afternoons, Leng says, can disrupt a sleep-wake cycle that allows for quality sleep at night. Stress or worrying about the pandemic and its consequences could what do you need to buy farxiga keep you up past your bedtime.

Also, sleep problems like insomnia are linked to depression, Leng says. Anyone struggling with one of these issues often faces the other problem as well. It’s also possible that single events, like what do you need to buy farxiga caring for a child in the middle of the night, might trigger a few days of disrupted sleep, says Allison Siebern, a sleep psychologist with the Stanford Sleep Medicine Center. Trouble falling asleep and staying that way, or having a hard time focusing during the day, are some of the insomnia symptoms that everyone will experience at one point in their lives.

When the initial event is over and the sleep issues continue — or as Siebern puts it, “when not sleeping takes on a life of its own” — someone is what do you need to buy farxiga at risk of developing diagnosable insomnia. For health professionals to diagnose a patient with this particular sleep disorder, an individual has to have disrupted sleep for three nights a week over a minimum of three months, as well as dysfunction or stress in their daily lives from the lack of rest. Tips for Getting Quality what do you need to buy farxiga Sleep Meeting the criteria for insomnia and receiving a diagnosis might give you access to certain interventions. But you don’t have to watch the calendar and tally up your sleepless nights to start improving your nighttime rest, Leng says, and nor should you.

€œUsually we think that the sooner people start noticing the problem, they should get started dealing with it." Disrupted sleep is associated with a higher likelihood of Type II diabetes and heart disease, and there’s evidence that older insomnia patients are at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.Read more. The Importance of Sleep for Your BodyThankfully, there are changes you can what do you need to buy farxiga implement right away to try to get your normal, restful sleep back, Leng says. Avoiding too much alcohol or caffeine helps, as does participating in regular physical activity. Staying regimented about how you what do you need to buy farxiga use your bedroom can maintain restful sleep, too.

Reserve your time in bed only for sleep and sex, and maintain a routine of going to bed and getting up at the same time every day. Going to see a therapist to deal with your insomnia is an option as well. €œBy the time someone is reaching out what do you need to buy farxiga to a professional, they’ve probably been struggling for some time,” says Siebern. One intervention available is cognitive behavioral therapy designed specifically for insomnia — a kind of psychological treatment that helps patients change habits and thought processes interfering with sleep.A therapist might advise some of the lifestyle changes mentioned above, like a strict bedtime.

But a professional such as Siebern may also try to help people reframe how they think about hitting what do you need to buy farxiga the sack. Consistently sleeping poorly can build anxiety and frustration around bedtime, Siebern says. Our brains, which often push us to imagine the worst possible outcomes, might pull the same trick when we notice we are sleeping poorly. For example, someone might think, “If I don't get sleep what do you need to buy farxiga tonight, then tomorrow will be bad and I’ll lose my job," Siebern says.

Those types of anxious thoughts boost circuits in our brains that help our “fight or flight” responses kick in, and can raise the adrenaline level and heart rate — biological shifts that interfere with sleep.Sometimes, people are so frustrated by their poor rest that it’s too big of a challenge for them to fight on their own, Siebern says. Talking with what do you need to buy farxiga a therapist and learning coping strategies can break the cycle. When a patient, for example, finds themselves assuming they’ll get fired for falling asleep on the job the next day, “we can scale back and see how accurate that statement is, and reframe in a more accurate way that isn’t as activating,” Siebern says.As frustrating as it is to get stuck in a rut of constant bad sleep, it is fixable, Siebern says. €œThe nice thing about insomnia disorder is that it doesn't mean you always have it.” If someone starts to notice themselves slipping back into the exhausting cycle again later in life, hopefully they will remember the coping mechanisms and deploy them before they find themselves in the doctor’s office again.

Also, know that sleep supplements like melatonin gummies might not be the hack to quality sleep what do you need to buy farxiga that you're looking for. Leng says "melatonin won’t help" with many of the causes for poor sleep outlined above.As scientists race to produce a safe and effective vaccine for COVID-19, many experts are pondering how to administer such a vaccine — and whether it should be mandatory. The United States is no stranger to mandatory vaccination programs and there’s plenty what do you need to buy farxiga of evidence that they can work, but Daniel Salmon, director of the Institute of Vaccine Safety at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, fears attitudes towards public health measures have changed so rapidly in 2020 that such an approach for COVID-19 could backfire. €œI’m really worried about that,” he says.

€œLots of people don’t want to wear masks or accept that the virus is real.”Acceptance of a vaccine, mandatory or not, is similarly challenged. The share of Americans who say they’d either probably or definitely get vaccinated against COVID-19 has tumbled from 71 percent in May to 51 percent in September, according to what do you need to buy farxiga polling data from the Pew Research Center. This downward trend is more pronounced among Republican Party voters — a majority of whom say they would now shun such a vaccine — but the data showed a similar trend among Democratic Party voters, too. €œLook at the backlash right now, you can only imagine what it would be like what do you need to buy farxiga with [mandatory] vaccines,” says Sean O’Leary, an infectious disease specialist at the University of Colorado.

And yet, mandatory vaccination programs have existed in the U.S. Since the early 20th century, when all children were required to attend elementary school for the first time. States began to legislate that what do you need to buy farxiga access to public education be conditional upon vaccination for various diseases. These rules expanded in the farxiga generic cost 1970s and 1980s and studies have shown that the laws are clearly linked with lower rates of vaccine-preventable diseases.Evidence and ExemptionsHow strict mandatory rules need to be is slightly less clear.

In 2016, California became the first state in what do you need to buy farxiga almost 30 years to forbid non-medical exemptions to its mandatory vaccination programs. One study demonstrated that while the percentage of vaccinated students entering elementary school did rise, evidence also indicated that some parents tried to circumvent the system.“Medical exemptions rose, and they were mostly bogus,” O’Leary says. €œThere were also more parents in California who decided to home school.” California has since introduced further legislation to provide more oversight for medical exemptions, but it’s too early to judge the consequence. The majority of evidence on the effectiveness of what do you need to buy farxiga mandatory vaccinations comes from kids.

A COVID-19 vaccination, however, would need to focus on adults. And to be effective, any such program would require different motivators to what do you need to buy farxiga ensure compliance. Carrots Vs. Sticks“Mandatory vaccination isn’t forced vaccination,” says Katie Attwell, a political scientist at the University of Western Australia who specializes in mandatory vaccination policy.

Rather, Attwell notes, it’s more about putting a series of economic and social nudges in place so adherence is the what do you need to buy farxiga default option.One of the most obvious motivators would involve companies tying employment to vaccination. No shot, no job. As Draconian as that may sound, what do you need to buy farxiga many U.S. Hospitals already have mandatory flu vaccination policies in place for their employees, starting with the Virginia Mason Medical Center in Seattle, which implemented the first such policy in 2005.

A study has since found that it has consistently achieved vaccination rates of 98 percent. That figure is in stark contrast to hospitals in other countries where flu vaccines are only encouraged, not mandated — the European what do you need to buy farxiga average for flu vaccinations among healthcare workers is less than 40 percent, according to another study.If tying vaccinations to employment is one way to target adults, then withdrawing public assistance from non-compliant people is another. This has been trialed in Australia with the controversial “no jab, no pay” scheme, where parents see child benefit payments reduced if they don’t have their kids vaccinated. Hundreds of thousands of more children are reported to have been vaccinated as a result, but some studies suggest that anti-vaxxer parents are prepared what do you need to buy farxiga to take the financial hit.

If such a program were contemplated for the U.S., Salmon says there would serious ethical concerns. €œIf you want to withhold welfare, that might work,” he says. €œBut it will disproportionately affect the poor and that’s not very equitable.” Offering tax credits to individuals who get what do you need to buy farxiga vaccinated is a less punitive scheme, but Salmon questions how effective it would be. €œTax credits will provide an incentive, but I think it’s unlikely to convince someone who really doesn’t want to do it,” Salmon says.

Should It Be Done? what do you need to buy farxiga. While the evidence shows that mandatory vaccination policies can improve immunization rates under the right conditions, experts we spoke with view it as a last resort. €œIf you don’t need to make it mandatory, don’t,” says Salmon. Instead, it’s better to wait and see how many Americans will voluntarily what do you need to buy farxiga offer their arms for a COVID-19 shot when the time comes and take it from there.

€œI’m not going to pretend I can predict the future,” says O’Leary. €œBut I suspect fear what do you need to buy farxiga of the disease and desire to get past the pandemic will push uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine.”Antibiotic resistance is too often labeled a plague for tomorrow. It’s a pressing problem. At least, until a more pressing problem comes along to overshadow it.

But experts say we’re already seeing the consequences of prescribing antibiotics to patients who don’t need them.The overuse of antibiotics is what do you need to buy farxiga a key factor driving this antibiotic resistance. It has led to the emergence of superbugs, infections that are resistant to frontline antibiotic treatments. And when a bug becomes smart enough to outwit all available antibiotics, what started as a simple infection can overtake the human body and kill.But in the midst of a pandemic for which there is no cure, doctors who may have thought twice about overprescribing antibiotics are now scrambling to save patients with few treatments at hand.For patients already seriously ill with COVID-19, the outcome can be what do you need to buy farxiga devastating. Valerie Vaughn, a hospitalist and assistant professor at the University of Michigan Medical School, saw the unfortunate convergence of COVID-19 and antibiotic resistance firsthand in an intensive care unit earlier in the pandemic.Antibiotic Resistance Is HereVaughn says a patient was given antibiotics upon arriving at the hospital, likely because doctors weren’t sure if he had COVID-19 or a bacterial respiratory infection.

He spent several weeks in the hospital on a ventilator what do you need to buy farxiga after a diagnosis of COVID-19 and his condition worsened. But then, he contracted Clostridium difficile, a serious stomach bug common in hospital patients given antibiotics because it strips them of good bacteria in the gut needed to fight this pathogen. In the end, his C. Diff infection what do you need to buy farxiga was resistant to antibiotic treatments.

After a hard-fought battle, he died from multi-organ failure as a result of his C. Diff infection.“That sits with me,” what do you need to buy farxiga says Vaughn. €œOften, when we don’t have a cure, doctors tend to overprescribe. Sometimes you’re doing right by your patient by not doing something.”But this heartbreaking story is just one example of improper antibiotic use during the pandemic.

Vaughn and what do you need to buy farxiga a team of researchers found that hospitals across Michigan were overprescribing antibiotics to patients that didn’t have bacterial infections. Their study, which is set to appear in Clinical Infectious Diseases, found that between March and June, more than half of COVID-19 patients were prescribed antibiotics when they reached the hospital. However, just 3.5 what do you need to buy farxiga percent of those patients had a secondary bacterial infection. That means the vast majority of those patients only had COVID-19, a viral infection that doesn’t respond to antibiotics.One reason for the mix-up is clear.

At the time, hospitals often didn’t have enough COVID-19 tests for patients, and turnaround times on results could take days. Frontline medical professionals weren’t sure if patients, arriving in an what do you need to buy farxiga already precarious state, had COVID-19 or some other serious illness. Often, they relied on symptoms to diagnose and quickly begin treatment. Vaughn’s study found that once COVID-19 tests what do you need to buy farxiga came back positive, most patients stopped receiving antibiotic treatments altogether.Another culprit behind antibiotic overprescription is more subtle.

On the surface, Vaughn says, COVID-19 pneumonia looks a lot like bacterial pneumonia. But a closer inspection reveals that COVID-19 pneumonia patients have a dry cough with a low white blood cell count. By contrast, bacterial pneumonia patients usually have a productive cough and what do you need to buy farxiga an elevated white blood cell count. Still, doctors rushing to save a seriously sick patient may get the two pneumonias confused.

As the number of COVID-19 patients increases across the nation, busy doctors and hospital staff are again in a what do you need to buy farxiga rush to save lives. Some hospitals are handling it better than others, a statistic reflected in Vaughn’s research. She found that the rate of antibiotic use during COVID-19 varied widely and was often linked with the strength of a hospital's antibiotic stewardship program. In places that provided robust support systems, a quarter of COVID-19 patients received antibiotics, while the what do you need to buy farxiga numbers were closer to 84 percent in hospitals without them.

If hospitals have enough COVID-19 tests and a good understanding of bacterial infections, says Vaughn, antibiotic misuse could be tamped down even further.A Future Without Antibiotics?. Stephen Trent, a professor at the Center for Vaccines and Immunology at the University of Georgia, says he is most concerned with the long-term viability what do you need to buy farxiga of such overuse.“Bacteria grow and divide every 20 minutes and the more antibiotics you use the more resistance you end up with,” he says. This is a big problem, Trent says, because we’re running out of antibiotics. Plus, fewer and fewer pharmaceutical companies have both the wherewithal and ambition to develop new treatments.“I can name five drugs for erectile dysfunction but it seems none of the giant pharmaceutical [companies] are coming up with new antibiotics, a drug without which you can’t do most elective or emergency surgeries,” says Trent.

€œBy 2050, these superbugs will kill more people what do you need to buy farxiga than cancer.”He points to the Pasteur Act, named for French immunologist Louis Pasteur and recently introduced by Senators Michael Bennet and Todd Young, as a step in the right direction. The bill would develop a list of prioritized infections for which there is a critical medical need and provide companies with financial incentives to develop the drugs. As pharmaceutical companies abandon antibiotic research in search of more profitable drugs, says Trent, it’s time for the what do you need to buy farxiga government to step in and make this a priority. And with a pandemic raging, we’re learning that antibiotic resistance could get worse.

COVID-19 isn't going away anytime soon and pumping antibiotics into patients is a big problem in both the long and short term, he says. €œWe need to do something about it before the what do you need to buy farxiga well dries up.”Delynn Willis had suffered from anxiety for years, but she’d always been wary of treating it with drugs like Valium and Xanax. €œI didn’t want to start using anything that might lead to an addiction,” says Willis, a writer.While traveling through Southeast Asia, she stumbled on an alternative option. A drug called phenibut (pronounced fen-uh-byoot), available what do you need to buy farxiga over the counter as an anti-anxiety aid.

A friend told her it was safer than benzodiazepines like Xanax, so she decided to give it a try. Developed by Russian scientists more than a half-century ago, phenibut has recently exploded in popularity worldwide. In most countries, including the United States, what do you need to buy farxiga it’s easily available online without a prescription. Some users report that it quells their anxious symptoms, and some say it fosters clear thinking or even ecstasy-like effects.

But experts warn that the drug’s addictive potential resembles that of benzos — and that phenibut purchased online may not be safe, since the online phenibut market is largely unregulated.A “New Tranquilizer”When Soviet Union researchers first synthesized phenibut in the what do you need to buy farxiga 1960s, they noticed that it had strong sedative effects on cats and mice. They billed the drug as a “new tranquilizer” that relieved anxiety, improved sleep quality and lifted depression. Phenibut quickly came into widespread use and was even included in cosmonauts’ space kits to help them keep a cool head under pressure.Chemically, phenibut is similar to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which reduces the excitability of brain cells. That helps explain why people report feeling relaxed and happy when what do you need to buy farxiga they take it.

€œIt helped me deal with social anxiety without clouding my mind,” Willis says. In that sense, says University of Michigan psychiatrist Edward Jouney, phenibut is actually a close cousin to drugs in the benzodiazepine family, which also affect the brain’s GABA receptors.Phenibut’s short-term effects are what do you need to buy farxiga highly dependent on what dose you take. If you take a small amount, under 1 gram, you’re likely to feel a sense of calm and well-being. But at higher doses, your thinking typically blurs, your motor coordination gets loopy and you may lapse into a deep sleep.Flirting With DependencePhenibut’s similarity to benzos means that — despite the popular perception that the drug is safe — your brain can start to grow dependent on it over time, just as it would on Valium or Xanax.

€œThe drug has what do you need to buy farxiga very potent psychoactive properties,” Jouney says. €œThere’s evidence it can cause addiction.” Jouney began researching phenibut’s effects a few years ago, when patients at his clinic told him they’d started the drug and were finding it impossible to stop. The deeper he dug, the what do you need to buy farxiga more uneasy he became. Not only were users reporting growing dependence on phenibut, but cases of phenibut-related dissociation, psychosis, and respiratory depression were also cropping up around the country.

The CDC reports that poison center calls related to phenibut have been growing since 2015, with users experiencing symptoms like agitation, irregular heartbeat, confusion and even coma.A Pharmaceutical Wild WestJouney thinks it’s possible that, used under a doctor’s supervision, phenibut could one day prove a viable treatment for anxiety. The trouble is that clear evidence of the drug’s safety and effectiveness is lacking — and to add to the potential danger, many what do you need to buy farxiga people are purchasing phenibut from unregulated online sellers.Phenibut is technically legal to possess in the United States, but that doesn’t mean it’s risk-free — or that you get what you pay for when you order it. Jouney contacted several online phenibut suppliers to ask about their products and quality-control measures, but was rebuffed. €œI tried calling them and they wouldn’t give me any info.” In 2019, the FDA sent warning letters to three companies for branding their phenibut products as “dietary supplements,” but most online phenibut sellers continue to ply their wares what do you need to buy farxiga unchecked.

While Delynn Willis’s phenibut journey started off smoothly, she soon experienced the backlash many users describe. €œAfter I had been using it for a few weeks, I started to notice I needed higher and higher doses to get the same effect,” she says. She started weaning herself off of the drug and got hit with a torrent of withdrawal what do you need to buy farxiga symptoms. €œMy anxiety skyrocketed, my temper shortened and I experienced dizzy spells.”That kind of torturous backlash is why Jouney urges people to reject claims that phenibut is a safe Xanax alternative.

€œIt’s something what do you need to buy farxiga that should be regulated,” he says. €œIt can lead to physical dependence. This is not a benign substance.”.

Farxiga for pcos

You have to go farxiga for pcos to extreme lengths to find places on Earth that farxiga heart don’t reveal that they’re part of a water-rich planet. Even the highest and driest deserts, like the Atacama Plateau in South America, still get a minimum of a couple of millimeters of annual precipitation on average (although there are places where we don’t yet know what the average is because it’s simply not rained for years). And if you whip farxiga for pcos out your handy mass spectrometer on a desert walkabout the chances are that you’ll be able to detect at least a few atmospheric water molecules.

Go elsewhere, and it’s hard to imagine anything but a water-logged world. More than 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered in oceans and roughly 97 percent of the surface water is in those oceans, leaving a scant 1 percent as freshwater. Water is also seldom static, whether it’s flowing in ocean currents or being evaporated and farxiga for pcos precipitated.

Averaged out over the planet there is about 100 centimeters of rainfall a year, but that’s across a total surface area of around 5.1x1018 square centimeters. In other words, doing the back-of-the-envelope calculation, some 510 trillion metric tons of water gets evaporated and then re-precipitated every year on Earth. But the catch is that we don’t really know where all of this water came farxiga for pcos from in the first place.

For a long while our picture of the formation of a rocky planet like the Earth has involved a violent, hot assembly some 4.5 billion years ago out of comparatively dry material in the inner solar system. Water would have come along later, with proposals for possible delivery by comets from the chill, frozen outer solar system, or by rocky but still volatile-rich meteoritic infall. But these options have farxiga for pcos proven tricky to justify completely for a variety of reasons.

Comets, for instance, often (but not always) have a deuterium concentration that doesn’t match what we see in Earth’s water—limiting their likely contribution. Similarly, water-rich farxiga for pcos rocky meteoritic material—so-called carbonaceous chondrites—have isotopic differences that could also limit how much they contributed to a young planet. At the same time, the representative type of material for building the entirety of a rocky Earth (and matching the planet’s overall isotopic composition in elements like oxygen and calcium) seems to closely resemble what’s called enstatite chondrite.

Chunks of enstatite chondrite are still around in the solar system, and occasionally fall as meteorites. But they’ve been thought to be too dry to be involved in Earth’s water supply farxiga for pcos. Now, in a work reported by Piani, et al.

In the journal Science, an analysis of the composition of 13 enstatite chondrite meteorite samples reveals a much higher than expected hydrogen content. Extrapolating from these numbers the researchers claim that if this farxiga for pcos is the type of protoplanetary material that built Earth, it could have resulted in a total, initial water content of at least three times the present mass of water in our oceans. The same material could have also provided a starter mix of atmospheric nitrogen to the young planet.

This possibility is enormously appealing for its relative simplicity. Our wet world was simply made this way from the very beginning, with little need to invoke any more complex evolution except for a small farxiga for pcos drizzling from comets and other outer solar system material. Whether or not this idea holds up to further scientific scrutiny, it’s a beautiful reminder that even the simplest things in our lives, like a glass of water or a shower in the morning, are actually windows into the deepest origins of everything we know.Scientists just completed one of the most comprehensive investigations of Earth’s climate history—and the findings aren’t favorable.

They found that the planet could eventually warm to levels it hasn’t reached in at least 34 million years. The researchers, led by Thomas Westerhold of the University of Bremen in Germany, constructed datasets using farxiga for pcos chemical analyses of ancient sediments, drilled from the bottom of the ocean. These sediments, some of which are 66 million years old, are filled with the preserved shells of tiny organisms that can tell scientists about the temperature and chemical composition of the ocean when they were formed.

The sediments, collected from around the farxiga for pcos world over the course of many years, allowed the researchers to reconstruct Earth’s climate history going back to the mass extinction that killed three-quarters of the planet’s species, including dinosaurs. They found that the planet has passed through four distinct climate phases. Warmhouse, hothouse, coolhouse and icehouse states.

Transitions from one state to another have generally depended on changing greenhouse farxiga for pcos gas levels, often driven by volcanic eruptions and other natural processes, and shifts in the Earth’s orbit that affected the amount of solar energy reaching the planet. In the hottest phases, more than 50 million years ago, temperatures on Earth were more than 10 degrees Celsius hotter than they are today. But it’s important to note that it took the planet thousands or even millions of years to reach these levels—and that was long before humans ever walked the Earth.

That’s in stark contrast to the farxiga for pcos kind of climate change that human activity is driving today. For several million years now, the world has been in an icehouse state. But that’s quickly changing.

If human societies do nothing to curb farxiga for pcos their greenhouse gas emissions, in just a few centuries the Earth could once again reach a temperature threshold not seen for at least 34 million years. Before the industrial era, such a magnitude of warming would have taken thousands of years to occur, at least. €œIf you look at the worst-case scenario [by 2300], the change in mean global temperature is larger than most of farxiga for pcos the natural variability going back over the last 66 million years related to changes in the Earth’s orbit,” said Jim Zachos, a paleoclimatologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and a co-author of the new study, which was published Thursday in the journal Science.

It’s not an inevitable future. With immediate and stringent action to reduce climate change, the world can keep global temperatures from rising more than a few degrees above their preindustrial levels. But the study does warn that without these efforts, Earth farxiga for pcos is on track for some of the strongest, fastest climate change the planet has ever experienced.

The study may also provide some important insights into how climate change could unfold in the coming decades and centuries. Earth’s climate doesn’t always shift in linear, predictable ways. There are all kinds of feedback processes farxiga for pcos that can speed things up or slow things down—such as the speed at which glaciers and sea ice melt or the way that clouds change in response to future warming.

In the ancient past, for instance, the study suggests that the world’s ice sheets played an important role in regulating the pace and predictability of the Earth’s climate response to natural changes in greenhouse gases or orbital shifts. Today, scientists believe that the world’s melting ice may also have a big impact on future climate change. These kinds farxiga for pcos of feedback processes can make it challenging to predict future change, especially over relatively short periods of time.

Reconstructing the Earth’s long-term climate history can help scientists test the models they use to predict its future. If a model can accurately simulate the past, scientists may have more confidence in its ability to simulate present-day climate processes. €œThat’s the beauty of this record,” Zachos farxiga for pcos said.

€œIt’s something we’ve always wanted to have because of the applicability to testing climate theory.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of farxiga for pcos essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net.Woo-hoo, d’oh, or meh?. Which of these Simpsonian reactions is appropriate to the fact, revealed by a 2019 survey conducted by researchers at Penn State University and the National Center for Science Education (NCSE), that about two in three—67 percent—of public high school biology teachers are presenting evolution forthrightly, emphasizing the broad scientific consensus on evolution while not giving any credence to creationism?.

Only in the context of the long and contentious history of evolution education in the United States is it clear what the most plausible answer is. American teachers have not farxiga for pcos always been afforded the luxury of teaching evolution forthrightly. John Thomas Scopes, for example, was famously prosecuted for violating Tennessee’s ban on teaching evolution in 1925.

Although his conviction was subsequently overturned, a national survey of high school biology teachers conducted in 1939–1940 revealed that only about half were teaching evolution as a central principle of biology. And bans on teaching evolution remained in place in Arkansas, Mississippi and Tennessee until farxiga for pcos 1970. New obstacles then emerged, particularly requirements to teach various forms of creationism as alternatives to evolution.

As recently as 15 years ago, in Dover, Pennsylvania, the local school board attempted to require its high school biology teachers to read a statement to their ninth-grade students describing “Darwin’s theory of evolution” as “not a fact,” and commending “intelligent design”—then a trendy slogan for creationism—to their attention as a scientifically credible alternative. The teachers, to their farxiga for pcos credit, unanimously refused to comply. But their refusal, together with the controversy surrounding the related trial over the constitutionality of the board’s actions, Kitzmiller v.

Dover, intrigued two farxiga for pcos parents a hundred miles to the northwest, in State College, Pa. Michael Berkman and Eric Plutzer were not just any concerned parents, though. They were political scientists at Penn State with a particular interest in education policy.

What—they wondered—are high school biology teachers teaching about evolution, and what factors influence farxiga for pcos their teaching practices?. To satisfy their curiosity, Berkman and Plutzer conducted the first modern national survey of high school biology teachers in 2007. The results were dire.

Only a slight majority, 51 percent, reported that they emphasized the broad scientific consensus farxiga for pcos on evolution while not giving any credence to creationism, as if to suggest no progress in the 67 years since the less rigorous survey of 1939–1940. That’s why the results of the 2019 survey—a collaboration between Plutzer and the NCSE—are so encouraging. Between 2007 and 2019, there definitely was progress.

From 51 percent of high school biology teachers reporting emphasizing evolution and not creationism in 2007 to 67 percent farxiga for pcos in 2019. It was matched by a drop from 23 to 12 percent of teachers who offer mixed messages by endorsing both evolution and creationism as a valid scientific alternative to evolution, from 18 to 15 percent of teachers who endorse neither evolution nor creationism, and from 8.6 to 5.6 percent of teachers who endorse creationism while not endorsing evolution. Credit.

National Center for Science Education farxiga for pcos What accounts for the improvement?. Did intelligent design’s crushing defeat in the Kitzmiller trial make find more info the difference?. Probably farxiga for pcos not.

Science teachers are guided not by case law but by state science standards, which specify what students in the state’s public schools are expected to learn. Standards thus influence the content of textbooks, statewide testing, and coursework for pre-service and in-service teachers. Importantly, they also provide a shield for teachers facing farxiga for pcos misguided community pressure over socially contentious topics like evolution.

The results of the 2019 survey suggest that a concerted effort to improve state science standards helped to improve evolution education. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which debuted in 2013, include “Biological Evolution. Unity and Diversity” farxiga for pcos as a disciplinary core idea of the life sciences at the middle and high school levels.

By now, 20 states (plus the District of Columbia) have adopted the NGSS, and a further 24 states have adopted standards based on the same evolution-friendly framework on which the NGSS are based. Were states that adopted the NGSS especially hospitable to the teaching of evolution?. Not farxiga for pcos really.

In 2007, their teachers were less likely to endorse evolution and not creationism than the national average. By 2019, they were more likely. While a variety of explanations are possible, teachers in NGSS states reported having taken more pre-service and in-service coursework in evolution than their colleagues elsewhere, suggesting that the increased expectations impelled both novice and veteran teachers to upgrade farxiga for pcos their content knowledge of evolution.

Despite the encouraging trend over a mere dozen years, there is still reason for concern. After all, more than one in six high school farxiga for pcos biology teachers, 17.6 percent, are still presenting creationism as a scientifically credible alternative to evolution. And almost as many high school biology teachers, 15 percent, are still failing to emphasize the broad scientific consensus on evolution, despite its general prevalence in state science standards and despite encouragement from professional organizations.

D’oh!. With 13,500-odd local school districts farxiga for pcos having primary responsibility for curriculum and instruction, changes to science education are inevitably going to be slow, scattered and incremental. Still, with the aid of uncounted scientists, educators, policymakers, administrators and concerned citizens in general (and perhaps even a certain episode of The Simpsons), clear and convincing improvements for evolution education were demonstrably attained in just a dozen years.

It is a victory worth not only celebrating—woo-hoo!. €”but also enlarging upon.ARGENTINA The farxiga for pcos earliest dinosaurs laid soft-shelled eggs, paleontologists say. A new chemical analysis of a more than 200-million-year-old fossilized egg from Patagonia—and a clutch of more recent eggs from Mongolia, found in the Gobi Desert—revealed a thin film matching the characteristics of modern soft-shelled eggs.

ENGLAND Archaeologists found that 20 deep shafts, previously thought to be natural sinkholes and ponds, were dug by Neolithic humans. The shafts form a circle two kilometers in diameter, with the Durrington farxiga for pcos Walls monument at its center, just three kilometers from Stonehenge. BRAZIL In a new paper, researchers documented the largest lightning bolt ever recorded.

The “mega-flash,” which extended for more than 700 kilometers in southern Brazil in farxiga for pcos 2018, was detected by a new advanced weather satellite in geostationary orbit. ISRAEL Researchers sequenced DNA samples from the Dead Sea Scrolls, identifying fragments made from sheep skin and others made from cow hide. The technique could help match fragments together and unravel the artifacts' geographic origins.

INDONESIA Scientists identified an elusive nose-horned dragon lizard in the forests farxiga for pcos of North Sumatra. Despite appearing in the mythology of the indigenous Bataks, the visually striking species had been spotted by scientists only once before—almost 130 years ago. AUSTRALIA Submarine drones uncovered an extensive system of underwater “rivers” of dense, salty water along Australia's continental shelf.

These flows carry organic matter from the coast into the deep ocean, and their volume varies seasonally, peaking in winter.The items below are highlights from the free newsletter, “Smart, useful, science stuff farxiga for pcos about COVID-19.” To receive newsletter issues daily in your inbox, sign-up here.. Please consider a monthly contribution to support this newsletter. At Nature, Nicky Phillips, David Cyranoski and Smriti Mallapaty covered the announcement that a collaboration between researchers at AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is pausing Phase 3 vaccine-candidate experiments due to a “suspected adverse event” in a study participant in the UK (9/9/20).

The collaboration’s Phase 3 studies are being paused in the U.S., Brazil, South Africa and the farxiga for pcos UK, Nature reports. €œThe news highlights the importance of waiting for the results of large, properly designed trials [experiments] to assess safety before approving a vaccine for widespread use,” the story states. Investigators will start by trying to find out if the participant received the vaccine candidate or a placebo, the story states.

And then if farxiga for pcos it was the vaccine, they will assess whether the participant’s reaction is related or unrelated to receiving it. €œI have every confidence that this group [of investigators] will very quickly assess this adverse event and make the results of that investigation known,” said a McGill University bioethicist quoted in the story. Presumably in response to reports of political pushing for approvals this fall, the chief executive officers (CEOs) of 9 pharmaceutical companies released a pledge (dated 9/8/20) to “uphold the integrity of the scientific process as they work towards potential global regulatory filings and approvals of the first COVID-19 vaccines.” The CEOs — including farxiga for pcos those for AstraZeneca, BioNTech, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson &.

Johnson, Merck, Moderna, and Pfizer — assert they will “only submit for approval or emergency use authorization after demonstrating safety and efficacy through a Phase 3 clinical study that is designed and conducted to meet requirements of expert regulatory authorities such as [the U.S. Food and Drug Administration].” In other words, they don’t plan to cut any corners in their research nor to yield to political pressure. For more contextualized commentary on what Ed Silverman describes as a “highly unusual turn of events," see his column at farxiga for pcos STAT (9/7/20).

Meanwhile, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has quickly taken measures to block any political influence over ongoing research to develop vaccines to protect us from SARS-CoV-2, report Anna Edney, Drew Armstrong, and Robert Langreth for Bloomberg (9/8/20). One measure reportedly includes the FDA “sticking by" June guidance that the agency will only consider for approval vaccine candidates that are at least 50% farxiga for pcos effective.

Lower down in the story, the reporters write, “There is no guarantee the vaccines furthest along in development will be the most effective, or be safe.” And it could take “months more” for Phase 3 findings to be conclusive, the story suggests. Still, the story ends with estimates by drug makers for how soon they might complete their Phase 3 studies (efficacy and safety experiments in thousands of study subjects) of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates. Moderna reportedly says farxiga for pcos as soon as Thanksgiving, and Pfizer reportedly has been saying next month.

I remain reasonably skeptical. On Twitter, I came across a farxiga for pcos searchable web site called “Dear Pandemic,” which bills itself as an “interdisciplinary all-female team of researchers and clinicians with expertise including nursing, mental health, demography, health policy/economics, and epidemiology.” Posts date back to July but the site appears to have officially launched 9/10/20. Their mission is to “educate and empower individuals to successfully navigate the COVID-19 information overwhelm.” About two-thirds of the way down the home page, there’s a “submit a question” link.

And below that, previous posts are indexed by topic and dates. The risk of catching SARS-CoV-2 on an airplane is “relatively low” if travelers are screened for sickness, wear masks, and are spaced out among seats, according to experts farxiga for pcos interviewed by Noah Y. Kim for Kaiser Health News (9/10/20).

The air exchange rate and use of HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters on planes also significantly reduce the risk of catching the virus from travelers who are several rows away, according to the story. There is still a risk from an infected person farxiga for pcos seated nearby, the story states. And air filtration alone is insufficient to prevent transmission even when travelers are distanced in the plane, Kim writes.

Delta, Hawaiian, Southwest and JetBlue currently keep middle seats open, the story states. Security checks and farxiga for pcos waiting at gates also pose some transmission risk. The U.S.

Centers for Disease Control has not confirmed any SARS-CoV-2 transmission aboard a U.S. Flight, an airline industry source says in the story, but that might reflect the difficulty of determining where people in the U.S. Contract the virus, Kim writes.

€œEven though flying is a relatively low-risk activity,” the story states, “traveling should still be avoided unless absolutely necessary.” An undated, recently published ESPN interactive, bylined by Kyle Bonagura, illustrates its analysis and mapping of anonymized cellphone tracking data for three 2019 U.S. College football games. The maps provide a sense of where fans travel to and disperse to after games and thus the regional concentration of potential SARS-CoV-2 (and other infectious disease) spread resulting from the mixing of people before, during and after big match-ups.

The piece includes updates on some of the football conferences’ plans and protocols for the 2020 season. The Big Ten and Pac-12 have postponed their seasons, whereas the SEC (Southeastern Conference) seems to be allowing each school to set its own attendance guidelines. I can’t pretend to follow NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) football designations but some or all of the NCAA teams drew “more than 47.5 million" attendees last season, the piece states.

€œEven with fewer teams in action and limited-capacity crowds, the prospect that college football could play a role in spreading the coronavirus is too obvious to ignore,” the story states. Thanks to a reader for alerting me to this piece. Check out “To build emotional strength, expand your brain,” by Kerry Hannon at The New York Times (9/2/20).

It basically asserts that learning new material, such as a language or craft, that expands your horizons helps you deal with change and crisis, such as the coronavirus pandemic. Near the end, the piece lists some free or low-cost online class sites and some programs that allow nontraditional students to audit classes or work on projects with enrolled graduate and undergraduate students. You might enjoy “Looks like I wasn’t muted during our Zoom meeting,” by Susie Aquilina, for McSweeney’s (9/10/20)..

You have to go to extreme lengths to find places on Earth that don’t what do you need to buy farxiga reveal that they’re part of a water-rich planet. Even the highest and driest deserts, like the Atacama Plateau in South America, still get a minimum of a couple of millimeters of annual precipitation on average (although there are places where we don’t yet know what the average is because it’s simply not rained for years). And if you whip out your handy mass spectrometer on a desert walkabout the chances are that you’ll be able to detect what do you need to buy farxiga at least a few atmospheric water molecules. Go elsewhere, and it’s hard to imagine anything but a water-logged world. More than 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered in oceans and roughly 97 percent of the surface water is in those oceans, leaving a scant 1 percent as freshwater.

Water is also seldom static, whether it’s flowing in ocean currents or being evaporated and precipitated what do you need to buy farxiga. Averaged out over the planet there is about 100 centimeters of rainfall a year, but that’s across a total surface area of around 5.1x1018 square centimeters. In other words, doing the back-of-the-envelope calculation, some 510 trillion metric tons of water gets evaporated and then re-precipitated every year on Earth. But the catch what do you need to buy farxiga is that we don’t really know where all of this water came from in the first place. For a long while our picture of the formation of a rocky planet like the Earth has involved a violent, hot assembly some 4.5 billion years ago out of comparatively dry material in the inner solar system.

Water would have come along later, with proposals for possible delivery by comets from the chill, frozen outer solar system, or by rocky but still volatile-rich meteoritic infall. But these options have proven what do you need to buy farxiga tricky to justify completely for a variety of reasons. Comets, for instance, often (but not always) have a deuterium concentration that doesn’t match what we see in Earth’s water—limiting their likely contribution. Similarly, water-rich rocky meteoritic material—so-called carbonaceous chondrites—have isotopic differences that what do you need to buy farxiga could also limit how much they contributed to a young planet. At the same time, the representative type of material for building the entirety of a rocky Earth (and matching the planet’s overall isotopic composition in elements like oxygen and calcium) seems to closely resemble what’s called enstatite chondrite.

Chunks of enstatite chondrite are still around in the solar system, and occasionally fall as meteorites. But they’ve been thought what do you need to buy farxiga to be too dry to be involved in Earth’s water supply. Now, in a work reported by Piani, et al. In the journal Science, an analysis of the composition of 13 enstatite chondrite meteorite samples reveals a much higher than expected hydrogen content. Extrapolating from these numbers the researchers claim that if this is the type of protoplanetary material that built Earth, it could have resulted in a total, initial what do you need to buy farxiga water content of at least three times the present mass of water in our oceans.

The same material could have also provided a starter mix of atmospheric nitrogen to the young planet. This possibility is enormously appealing for its relative simplicity. Our wet world was simply what do you need to buy farxiga made this way from the very beginning, with little need to invoke any more complex evolution except for a small drizzling from comets and other outer solar system material. Whether or not this idea holds up to further scientific scrutiny, it’s a beautiful reminder that even the simplest things in our lives, like a glass of water or a shower in the morning, are actually windows into the deepest origins of everything we know.Scientists just completed one of the most comprehensive investigations of Earth’s climate history—and the findings aren’t favorable. They found that the planet could eventually warm to levels it hasn’t reached in at least 34 million years.

The researchers, led by Thomas Westerhold of what do you need to buy farxiga the University of Bremen in Germany, constructed datasets using chemical analyses of ancient sediments, drilled from the bottom of the ocean. These sediments, some of which are 66 million years old, are filled with the preserved shells of tiny organisms that can tell scientists about the temperature and chemical composition of the ocean when they were formed. The sediments, collected from around the world over the course of many years, allowed the researchers to reconstruct Earth’s climate history going back to what do you need to buy farxiga the mass extinction that killed three-quarters of the planet’s species, including dinosaurs. They found that the planet has passed through four distinct climate phases. Warmhouse, hothouse, coolhouse and icehouse states.

Transitions from one state to another have generally depended on changing greenhouse gas levels, often driven by volcanic eruptions and other natural processes, and shifts in the Earth’s orbit that affected what do you need to buy farxiga the amount of solar energy reaching the planet. In the hottest phases, more than 50 million years ago, temperatures on Earth were more than 10 degrees Celsius hotter than they are today. But it’s important to note that it took the planet thousands or even millions of years to reach these levels—and that was long before humans ever walked the Earth. That’s in stark contrast to the kind of climate change that human activity what do you need to buy farxiga is driving today. For several million years now, the world has been in an icehouse state.

But that’s quickly changing. If human societies do nothing to curb their what do you need to buy farxiga greenhouse gas emissions, in just a few centuries the Earth could once again reach a temperature threshold not seen for at least 34 million years. Before the industrial era, such a magnitude of warming would have taken thousands of years to occur, at least. €œIf you look at the worst-case scenario [by 2300], the change in mean global what do you need to buy farxiga temperature is larger than most of the natural variability going back over the last 66 million years related to changes in the Earth’s orbit,” said Jim Zachos, a paleoclimatologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and a co-author of the new study, which was published Thursday in the journal Science. It’s not an inevitable future.

With immediate and stringent action to reduce climate change, the world can keep global temperatures from rising more than a few degrees above their preindustrial levels. But the study does warn that without these efforts, Earth is on track for some of the strongest, fastest climate change the planet has ever what do you need to buy farxiga experienced. The study may also provide some important insights into how climate change could unfold in the coming decades and centuries. Earth’s climate doesn’t always shift in linear, predictable ways. There are all kinds of feedback processes that can speed things up or slow things down—such as the speed at which glaciers and sea ice melt or the way that clouds change in response to future what do you need to buy farxiga warming.

In the ancient past, for instance, the study suggests that the world’s ice sheets played an important role in regulating the pace and predictability of the Earth’s climate response to natural changes in greenhouse gases or orbital shifts. Today, scientists believe that the world’s melting ice may also have a big impact on future climate change. These kinds of feedback processes can make it challenging to predict future change, especially over relatively what do you need to buy farxiga short periods of time. Reconstructing the Earth’s long-term climate history can help scientists test the models they use to predict its future. If a model can accurately simulate the past, scientists may have more confidence in its ability to simulate present-day climate processes.

€œThat’s the beauty of this record,” what do you need to buy farxiga Zachos said. €œIt’s something we’ve always wanted to have because of the applicability to testing climate theory.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net.Woo-hoo, d’oh, or meh? what do you need to buy farxiga. Which of these Simpsonian reactions is appropriate to the fact, revealed by a 2019 survey conducted by researchers at Penn State University and the National Center for Science Education (NCSE), that about two in three—67 percent—of public high school biology teachers are presenting evolution forthrightly, emphasizing the broad scientific consensus on evolution while not giving any credence to creationism?. Only in the context of the long and contentious history of evolution education in the United States is it clear what the most plausible answer is.

American teachers what do you need to buy farxiga have not always been afforded the luxury of teaching evolution forthrightly. John Thomas Scopes, for example, was famously prosecuted for violating Tennessee’s ban on teaching evolution in 1925. Although his conviction was subsequently overturned, a national survey of high school biology teachers conducted in 1939–1940 revealed that only about half were teaching evolution as a central principle of biology. And bans on teaching evolution remained in place what do you need to buy farxiga in Arkansas, Mississippi and Tennessee until 1970. New obstacles then emerged, particularly requirements to teach various forms of creationism as alternatives to evolution.

As recently as 15 years ago, in Dover, Pennsylvania, the local school board attempted to require its high school biology teachers to read a statement to their ninth-grade students describing “Darwin’s theory of evolution” as “not a fact,” and commending “intelligent design”—then a trendy slogan for creationism—to their attention as a scientifically credible alternative. The teachers, what do you need to buy farxiga to their credit, unanimously refused to comply. But their refusal, together with the controversy surrounding the related trial over the constitutionality of the board’s actions, Kitzmiller v. Dover, intrigued two parents a what do you need to buy farxiga hundred miles to the northwest, in State College, Pa. Michael Berkman and Eric Plutzer were not just any concerned parents, though.

They were political scientists at Penn State with a particular interest in education policy. What—they wondered—are high school biology teachers what do you need to buy farxiga teaching about evolution, and what factors influence their teaching practices?. To satisfy their curiosity, Berkman and Plutzer conducted the first modern national survey of high school biology teachers in 2007. The results were dire. Only a slight majority, 51 percent, reported that they emphasized the broad scientific consensus on evolution while not giving any what do you need to buy farxiga credence to creationism, as if to suggest no progress in the 67 years since the less rigorous survey of 1939–1940.

That’s why the results of the 2019 survey—a collaboration between Plutzer and the NCSE—are so encouraging. Between 2007 and 2019, there definitely was progress. From 51 percent of high school biology teachers reporting emphasizing evolution and not creationism in 2007 to what do you need to buy farxiga 67 percent in 2019. It was matched by a drop from 23 to 12 percent of teachers who offer mixed messages by endorsing both evolution and creationism as a valid scientific alternative to evolution, from 18 to 15 percent of teachers who endorse neither evolution nor creationism, and from 8.6 to 5.6 percent of teachers who endorse creationism while not endorsing evolution. Credit.

National Center for Science what do you need to buy farxiga Education What accounts for the improvement?. Did intelligent design’s crushing defeat in the Kitzmiller trial make the difference?. Probably not what do you need to buy farxiga. Science teachers are guided not by case law but by state science standards, which specify what students in the state’s public schools are expected to learn. Standards thus influence the content of textbooks, statewide testing, and coursework for pre-service and in-service teachers.

Importantly, they also provide a shield for teachers facing misguided community pressure over socially contentious topics like evolution what do you need to buy farxiga. The results of the 2019 survey suggest that a concerted effort to improve state science standards helped to improve evolution education. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which debuted in 2013, include “Biological Evolution. Unity and Diversity” as a disciplinary core idea of the life sciences at what do you need to buy farxiga the middle and high school levels. By now, 20 states (plus the District of Columbia) have adopted the NGSS, and a further 24 states have adopted standards based on the same evolution-friendly framework on which the NGSS are based.

Were states that adopted the NGSS especially hospitable to the teaching of evolution?. Not what do you need to buy farxiga really. In 2007, their teachers were less likely to endorse evolution and not creationism than the national average. By 2019, they were more likely. While a variety of explanations what do you need to buy farxiga are possible, teachers in NGSS states reported having taken more pre-service and in-service coursework in evolution than their colleagues elsewhere, suggesting that the increased expectations impelled both novice and veteran teachers to upgrade their content knowledge of evolution.

Despite the encouraging trend over a mere dozen years, there is still reason for concern. After all, more than one in six high school biology teachers, 17.6 percent, are still presenting creationism as a scientifically credible alternative what do you need to buy farxiga to evolution. And almost as many high school biology teachers, 15 percent, are still failing to emphasize the broad scientific consensus on evolution, despite its general prevalence in state science standards and despite encouragement from professional organizations. D’oh!. With 13,500-odd local school districts having primary what do you need to buy farxiga responsibility for curriculum and instruction, changes to science education are inevitably going to be slow, scattered and incremental.

Still, with the aid of uncounted scientists, educators, policymakers, administrators and concerned citizens in general (and perhaps even a certain episode of The Simpsons), clear and convincing improvements for evolution education were demonstrably attained in just a dozen years. It is a victory worth not only celebrating—woo-hoo!. €”but also what do you need to buy farxiga enlarging upon.ARGENTINA The earliest dinosaurs laid soft-shelled eggs, paleontologists say. A new chemical analysis of a more than 200-million-year-old fossilized egg from Patagonia—and a clutch of more recent eggs from Mongolia, found in the Gobi Desert—revealed a thin film matching the characteristics of modern soft-shelled eggs. ENGLAND Archaeologists found that 20 deep shafts, previously thought to be natural sinkholes and ponds, were dug by Neolithic humans.

The shafts form a circle two kilometers in diameter, with the Durrington what do you need to buy farxiga Walls monument at its center, just three kilometers from Stonehenge. BRAZIL In a new paper, researchers documented the largest lightning bolt ever recorded. The “mega-flash,” which extended what do you need to buy farxiga for more than 700 kilometers in southern Brazil in 2018, was detected by a new advanced weather satellite in geostationary orbit. ISRAEL Researchers sequenced DNA samples from the Dead Sea Scrolls, identifying fragments made from sheep skin and others made from cow hide. The technique could help match fragments together and unravel the artifacts' geographic origins.

INDONESIA Scientists identified an elusive nose-horned dragon lizard in the forests of what do you need to buy farxiga North Sumatra. Despite appearing in the mythology of the indigenous Bataks, the visually striking species had been spotted by scientists only once before—almost 130 years ago. AUSTRALIA Submarine drones uncovered an extensive system of underwater “rivers” of dense, salty water along Australia's continental shelf. These flows carry organic matter from the coast into the deep ocean, and their what do you need to buy farxiga volume varies seasonally, peaking in winter.The items below are highlights from the free newsletter, “Smart, useful, science stuff about COVID-19.” To receive newsletter issues daily in your inbox, sign-up here.. Please consider a monthly contribution to support this newsletter.

At Nature, Nicky Phillips, David Cyranoski and Smriti Mallapaty covered the announcement that a collaboration between researchers at AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is pausing Phase 3 vaccine-candidate experiments due to a “suspected adverse event” in a study participant in the UK (9/9/20). The collaboration’s Phase 3 studies are being paused in the U.S., Brazil, South Africa what do you need to buy farxiga and the UK, Nature reports. €œThe news highlights the importance of waiting for the results of large, properly designed trials [experiments] to assess safety before approving a vaccine for widespread use,” the story states. Investigators will start by trying to find out if the participant received the vaccine candidate or a placebo, the story states. And then if it was the vaccine, what do you need to buy farxiga they will assess whether the participant’s reaction is related or unrelated to receiving it.

€œI have every confidence that this group [of investigators] will very quickly assess this adverse event and make the results of that investigation known,” said a McGill University bioethicist quoted in the story. Presumably in response to reports of what do you need to buy farxiga political pushing for approvals this fall, the chief executive officers (CEOs) of 9 pharmaceutical companies released a pledge (dated 9/8/20) to “uphold the integrity of the scientific process as they work towards potential global regulatory filings and approvals of the first COVID-19 vaccines.” The CEOs — including those for AstraZeneca, BioNTech, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson &. Johnson, Merck, Moderna, and Pfizer — assert they will “only submit for approval or emergency use authorization after demonstrating safety and efficacy through a Phase 3 clinical study that is designed and conducted to meet requirements of expert regulatory authorities such as [the U.S. Food and Drug Administration].” In other words, they don’t plan to cut any corners in their research nor to yield to political pressure. For more contextualized commentary on what Ed Silverman describes as a “highly unusual turn of events," see his column at STAT (9/7/20) what do you need to buy farxiga.

Meanwhile, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has quickly taken measures to block any political influence over ongoing research to develop vaccines to protect us from SARS-CoV-2, report Anna Edney, Drew Armstrong, and Robert Langreth for Bloomberg (9/8/20). One measure reportedly includes the FDA “sticking by" June guidance that the agency will what do you need to buy farxiga only consider for approval vaccine candidates that are at least 50% effective. Lower down in the story, the reporters write, “There is no guarantee the vaccines furthest along in development will be the most effective, or be safe.” And it could take “months more” for Phase 3 findings to be conclusive, the story suggests. Still, the story ends with estimates by drug makers for how soon they might complete their Phase 3 studies (efficacy and safety experiments in thousands of study subjects) of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates.

Moderna reportedly what do you need to buy farxiga says as soon as Thanksgiving, and Pfizer reportedly has been saying next month. I remain reasonably skeptical. On Twitter, I came across a searchable web site called “Dear Pandemic,” which bills itself as an “interdisciplinary all-female team of researchers and clinicians with expertise including nursing, mental health, demography, health policy/economics, and epidemiology.” Posts date back to July but the site appears to have what do you need to buy farxiga officially launched 9/10/20. Their mission is to “educate and empower individuals to successfully navigate the COVID-19 information overwhelm.” About two-thirds of the way down the home page, there’s a “submit a question” link. And below that, previous posts are indexed by topic and dates.

The risk of catching SARS-CoV-2 on an airplane is “relatively what do you need to buy farxiga low” if travelers are screened for sickness, wear masks, and are spaced out among seats, according to experts interviewed by Noah Y. Kim for Kaiser Health News (9/10/20). The air exchange rate and use of HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters on planes also significantly reduce the risk of catching the virus from travelers who are several rows away, according to the story. There is still a risk from an infected person seated nearby, what do you need to buy farxiga the story states. And air filtration alone is insufficient to prevent transmission even when travelers are distanced in the plane, Kim writes.

Delta, Hawaiian, Southwest and JetBlue currently keep middle seats open, the story states. Security checks and waiting at gates also pose some transmission what do you need to buy farxiga risk. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control has not confirmed any SARS-CoV-2 transmission aboard a U.S. Flight, an airline industry source says in what do you need to buy farxiga the story, but that might reflect the difficulty of determining where people in the U.S.

Contract the virus, Kim writes. €œEven though flying is a relatively low-risk activity,” the story states, “traveling what do you need to buy farxiga should still be avoided unless absolutely necessary.” An undated, recently published ESPN interactive, bylined by Kyle Bonagura, illustrates its analysis and mapping of anonymized cellphone tracking data for three 2019 U.S. College football games. The maps provide a sense of where fans travel to and disperse to after games and thus the regional concentration of potential SARS-CoV-2 (and other infectious disease) spread resulting from the mixing of people before, during and after big match-ups. The piece includes updates on some of the football conferences’ plans and protocols for the 2020 season what do you need to buy farxiga.

The Big Ten and Pac-12 have postponed their seasons, whereas the SEC (Southeastern Conference) seems to be allowing each school to set its own attendance guidelines. I can’t pretend to follow NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) football designations but some or all of the NCAA teams drew “more than 47.5 million" attendees last season, the piece states. €œEven with fewer teams in action and limited-capacity crowds, the prospect that college football could play a role in what do you need to buy farxiga spreading the coronavirus is too obvious to ignore,” the story states. Thanks to a reader for alerting me to this piece. Check out “To build emotional strength, expand your brain,” by Kerry Hannon at The New York Times (9/2/20).

It basically asserts that learning new material, such as a language or craft, that expands your horizons helps you deal with change and crisis, such as the coronavirus pandemic. Near the end, the piece lists some free or low-cost online class sites and some programs that allow nontraditional students to audit classes or work on projects with enrolled graduate and undergraduate students. You might enjoy “Looks like I wasn’t muted during our Zoom meeting,” by Susie Aquilina, for McSweeney’s (9/10/20)..